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ARCL 140 Study Guide - Final Guide: Prognathism, Parietal Lobe, Sterkfontein

Anthropological Archaeology
Course Code
ARCL 140
Heather Robertson
Study Guide

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H. Neanderthalensis -La Chapelle-aux Saints, sw. France -At least 40 or older, male, 1620 cc, Nicknamed “the old man” bc many diseases associated with the bone, trauma as well, Neandertals were identical
to modern humans other than the skull, St. Cesaire, sw. France -Young male, Healed sharp force trauma found with Chatelperronian tools, tooth-like appearance Krapina, Croatia, 70 + individuals, 1000+ stone
tools, 130-110 kya, Earliest classic morphology, One of the earliest intentional burials, cannibalism/mortuary defleshing? Vindija Cave, Croatia-60 + specimens, Mousterian artifacts, Modern features Tabun Cave
& Kebara Cave, Israel, Female skeleton, Less robust features, Partial male skeleton, most complete pelvis, first hyoid bone found, Hyoid in the modern shape usually means complexity in language Shanidar
Cave, Iraq -9 individuals, Shanidar 1: male, 30-45 yrs, 1600cc, 170cm, trauma, Suggested that flowers were laid with the body, Suffering in life bc of traumatic injuries to the left side of the head, missing his right
hand, muscle atrophy to the shoulder and humerus, injury to right foot, leg etc.,Possibly bc of large game, possibly because of intergroup violence bc of competition over resources Evidence Interpersonal
violence - st. cesaire Neandertal, Young adult healed fracture in the cranial vault made by sharp object, Support from group bc he healed from the trauma, Neandertals buried their dead - 33 burials known of, 14
associated stone tools or animal bones. Mousterian Tools: awls, knives, scrapers and points - specialized for hunting, butchery, woodworking. Homo Neanderthal diverged from AHS 349-329 kya. Neandertal
Genome Project headed by Svante P̈̈bo at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, began in 2006, with aim of: 1. determining sequences of 3 billion base pairs that make up
Neandertal DNA; 2. determining what contribution, if any, Neandertals made to modern human variation; 3. providing catalogue of differences between human & Neandertal genomes. 14% Neandertal genome
in modern humans = Neandertal admixture Anatomic and Dental Traits - 1600cc, Large skull, long, low and bulging at the sides, Occipital bun at the back of the skull, Vertical forehead, Brow ridges arch over
orbits, Projecting face, Robust, Barrel-chested, Powerful muscles, Shorter limbs, 160-169cm tall, Adaptations to living in cold climate Dental traits: Taurodontism - severe wear of anterior teeth, shovel -shaped
incisors, Genetic Contributions- Foxp2 gene, Red hair and fair skin (mutation of MC1R gene) Denisovans - In Siberia, a 40,000-year-old adult tooth and an exquisitely preserved fossilized pinkie bone that had
belonged to a young girl who was between five and seven years old when she died were found. The Denisovan genome also suggests the young girl had brown hair, eyes, and skin. According to one theory,
Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans are all descended from the ancient human Homo heidelbergensis. Between 300,000 to 400,000 years ago, an ancestral group of H. heidelbergensis left Africa and
then split shortly after. One branch ventured northwestward into West Asia and Europe and became the Neanderthals. The other branch moved east, becoming Denisovans. By 130,000 years ago, H.
heidelbergensis in Africa had become Homo sapiensour ancestorswho did not begin their own exodus from Africa until about 60,000 years ago.
H. Sapiens - Geographic Locations -Omo Skulls 1 and 2 (~195kya), Kibish, Omo National Park, Ethiopia, Same strata - same context - they were the same time period, Chronometric dating, KAr dating etc., 2
craniums are quite different, Omo 1 - AMH, Omo 2 - retained ancestral traits, perhaps Homo Heidelbergensis/Homo Rhodesiensis. Herto Skull - Middle Awash, Ethiopia, 160-154 kya, Better source of info bc its
more complete, Skull is nearly modern in appearance, More robust, longer skull than modern humans, Large cranial capacity - 1450 cc, More vertical forehead, smaller face than heidelbergensis Earliest
evidence of AMH migration out of Africa - Remains of 10 individuals - Skhul Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel, 130-100 kya, Qafzeh Cave, Israel remains of 20 individuals, 120-92 kya Asia (largely China) - Possible
sites include: Zhoukoudian Upper Cave, Tianyuan, Liujiang, Zhoukoudian, 3 skulls and postcranial remains, 27 kya, Tianyuan cave, 34 skeletal remains from 1 individual, 42-39 kya, Evidence of interbreeding
between AMH and archaic Homo Sapiens (Jinniushan?) Niah Cave, Borneo, Indonesia - Partial skull, partial leg, partial foot, 46-34 kya, female , 18-25, Modern skeletal morphology - may be the oldest modern
human from Asia, Population that colonized Australia? Australia - Lake Mungo, Burials in the form of cremations and two incomplete individuals, ~40 kya, Older dates than the usual, Flake tools date to ~50 kya,
Old male covered in red ochre, Partially burned skull, young female, gracile compared to later populations Kow Swamp, Australia -Partial remains of 22 individuals, 13-9.5 kya, Reintroduction of robust traits,
Heavy brow ridges, robust cranial bones, Genetic evidence = all native australians are descendants of a single migration event at least 50 kya,Genetic divergence of the population around 75-62 kya. Possibly
because of melting icebergs, many remains may be underwater and undiscoverable in Western and Central Europe Cultural Periods (tools) Butchering site: a place with evidence of the butchering of carcasses
by hominins. Consists of tool-cut marks on animal bones, or stone tools themselves Quarrying site: Sites that early hominins were obtaining the raw material to make stone tools. Home base: an area to which
hominins may have brought tools and carcasses and around which their activities were centered. This is met with skepticism. Osteodontokeratic Culture: 3.3 mya. Would use bones, teeth, horns as tools, not
necessarily eating meat as a part of a regular diet at this point. Hunting models: Hunting: bands of early humans may have attacked large and dangerous game. Confrontational Scavenging: fought off large
predators, such as saber-toothed cats, to gain access to meat & marrow. Passive Scavenging: Crept up to decomposing, nearly stripped carcasses to glean a few scraps of meant & fat. From 2.5 mya onwards,
butchery using stone tools seem to become more common. Complete Replacement (out of Africa) model vs. Multiregional model - Chris stringer and Peter Andrews Complete replacement is an issue,
Anatomically modern humans did not interact or interbreed with hominins that lived alongside them Multiregional - evolved alongside one another in different areas of the world - Milford Wolpoff -Proposes
widespread interbreeding between various hominins, Extensive gene flow Contradicts what we already know about genetic relatedness Partial replacement model “mostly out of Africa” - partial replacement
of hominins - Some species go extinct, some interbreed Most likely scenario Genetic evidence - (possible exam q) - Humans are genetically similar, Relatively small pops gave rise to all modern people in and
out of Africa, Individuals in African pops more genetically variable than the rest of the world (gene flow), Non african pops closely related) founder effect Anatomic Traits - Voluminous brains, Longer occipitals,
Longer parietal, Taller and rounder brain case, Larger mastoid processes, Defined chin, Reduced brow ridges, High forehead, Flatter face, Prominent nose Homo Naledi - NO CHRONO dating yet,
biostratigraphic Geographic Locations Rising star cave, SA, dinaledi chamber Date Ranges 2mya-912kya Anatomic and Dental Traits - Traits of A. Afarensis, H. Habilis and H. Erectus, A Traits- Curved
fingers, Shoulder, Wide thorax, Pelvis shape, Small brain - 465-560cc. H. Erectus - Robust thumb, Longer legs, Wrist, Vertebrae, foot Anatomic Differences Between H. Floresiences - Height 1 m vs. height
1.5m, Cc 380-420 vs. 465-560, Both: Large supraorbital tori, Both: Small teeth, But most below the cranium does not match Anatomic Differences Between H. Erectus and Au. Sediba - H. Erectus - Height
1.5m, 600-730cc vs. 465-560, Variation in morphology, Long and low braincase vs. high and round braincase, Occipital tori, Sagittal keel, the craniums don’t really match, but that could just be due to the variation
in morphology,They also fail to match post-cranially, however A. Sediba - Height 1.2m vs. 1.5, 420-435cc vs. 465-560 cc, Anatomical mosaic, Precision grip, Arboreal and bipedal locomotion, Small teeth, Closer
than any other species, But if you just compare the paratype skull it’s not a match. If you compare it to the halotype skull, it’s a match, The pelvis of H. Naledi is not the same as A. Sediba, Pelvis is more hollow,
but A bc it is more flared out,Everything except the cranium and the pelvis is a match for sediba. H. Naledi- Height 1.5m, 465-560cc, Precision grip, Arboreal and bipedal locomotion. Hypotheses - New species,
To varied in phenotypic traits to be a new species - Like homo erectus (Dmanisi or H. Folesiensis), Mixture of different species? Robertson’s theory: A. sediba and H. naledi look very alike cranially and post-
cranially as long as you don’t compare to paratype skull. Very flared out iliac crests are not homo like/not sediba like, but pelvis usually changes before the feet adapt to bipedalism. Taphonomy - No signs of
predation, All hominin, one owl, No water transport (fluvial activity),Isolated depositional environment. Difference between H. Ergaster and H. Erectus. H. Ergaster- Thinner cranial bones, Less pronounced
supraorbital tori. H. Erectus - Thicker cranial bones, More pronounced supraorbital tori Geographic Locations and Fossils - (Oldest H Erectus) East Turkana (Koobi Fora), Kenya - older female, 848cc, dated 1.8
mya, KNM-ER 42700 found Ileret (Koobi Fora), E. Turkana, Kenya - dated 1.5 mya, 691 cc, female?. OH9 found Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania - dated 1.47mya, largest brow ridges of any known hominid fossil, 1067
cc, thin cranial bones. BOU-VP-2/66, otherwise known as Daka found in Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia - dated 1 mya, 995 cc. WT 15000 - “Nariokotome Boy” found in Nariokotome, West Turkana, Kenya,
1.6mya, 90% completed skeleton, 880cc. 6 sites in Indonesia - Trinil, Sangiran, Modjokerto, Ngandong, Sambungmacan & Kedung Brubus, 1.6-1 mya, First Indonesian fossil - Java Man, Trinil Tool Industry
(Acheulan) -More complex than Oldowon, flint knapping, Dated 1.5mya-250kya, Hand axes - Bifacial, Teardrop shape. Cleavers -Unifacial, Broad working end Dmanisi fossils -D2700 - Less robust and thinner
brow ridges, Projecting lower face, Large upper canines, Small cranial capacity - 600cc compared to the other's which sit at 630, 650, and 775cc D3444 -Older male almost edentulous D2282, D2280, D211, All
from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, Skulls, mandibles, postcranial remains, Dmanisi with some H. Erectus Traits - Less robust and thinner brow ridges, Projecting lower face, Large upper canineS H erectus traits
-Long, low braincase, Wide skull base, Sagittal keel, Postcranial remains from 4 individuals. Combo of Homo + H. Erectus traits. Dmanisi stone tools -Simple cores, Chopper tools, Flakes. Oldowan-type stone
tools - Simple tools do not lose their usefulness - when more complex tools are created, the older ones are still expedient Movius Line: division between Acheulean and Oldowan type tool industries.
Zhoukoudian fossils, some lost during Japanese occupation of China during WWII, Tools from Zhoukoudian are advanced, Technological evolution, More complex than Acheulean, Controlled use of fire, Deer,
horse, fruits, berries, and eggs, Layers of ash and charred egg shells - suggests controlled use of fire Anatomic Traits H. Erectus -Avg. height 168cm, Avg. body mass 45kg, Increase in skeletal robusticity, Avg.
brain capacity 900cc What characterizes “Homo” (vs. Autralopithecines/paranthropines) Homos are… Larger brain size and rounder braincase, Less prognathic face, Smaller teeth, Larger body, Shorter
arms, Flexible lower back, More efficient bipedalism, TOOLS! These features may be related to more meat and animal fat in their diet, greater ranging, and greater food processing through tool use.
Australopithecines have… Smaller cranial capacity 420-435 cc, More prognathic, Hyperbolic dental arcade, Large supraorbital tori, Curved fingers, Long arms Example: Au. Sediba: both arboreal and bipedal
with a swaying gait homoplasy Geographic Locations - H. Rudolfensis - Kanapoi, E. Turkana, Koobi Fora, Kenya; H. Habilis - Fossil OH7 - Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Fossils KNM-ER 1813, OH24, Stw 53 -
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Koobi Fora, Kenya. Sterkfontein, S. Africa. Possibly Hadar, Ethiopia. Date Range- H. Rudolfensis, 2.1-1.78 mya Anatomic Traits of H. Habilis and H. Rudolfensis - H. Rudolfensis-
Body size diversity within species, Derived facial anatomy, Less prognathic, Cranial capacity 775cc. H. Habilis - Brain size diversity within the species (510-687cc), 1.3m tall, Large front teeth relative to molars, No
grasping foot ability, Parabolic dental arcade, Small supraorbital tori Tool Industry (Oldowan tools) - Oldowan Industry characterized by simple, unifacial core with flake tools.Discovery at Olduvai Gorge,
Tanzania from 2.6-1.5 mya Made from basalt and chert Cores used to produce flakes until too small, then discarded Flakes are very sharp and used to cut through animal hide and removing meat from bone
Hammerstone: a stone used for striking cores to produce flakes or bones to expose marrow Anvil technique H. Heidelbergensis/Archaic Homo Sapiens - Geographic Locations - “Rhodesian Man” - H.
Rhodesiensis located in Kabwe (Broken Hill), Zambia est. 600-125kya, 1100cc. Bodo, Ethiopia, 600kya, 1250cc, one of the oldest H. Heidelbergensis. Bodo - cut marks on face and skull - possibly defleshing,
cannibalism, ritual. Earliest evidence of deliberate processing of hominin by another hominin, Steinheim, Germany; 250-350, 1100-1200cc, Petralona, Greece; 1 skull, 300-400kya, 1220cc, Swanscombe, England;
3 cranial bones, 400-250kya, 1300cc, Arago, France; 400-200kya, young male, 1166cc, Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca), Spain; 30 individuals (16 skulls), 600-530kya, deliberate burial? No signs of habitation, no
faunal remains, one tool “excalibur” hand axe, Dali - 270kya, 1120cc, long and low cranium, sagittal keel, Jinniushan - 200 kya, 1260cc, thin cranial bones Date Ranges -Middle Pleistocene 7.8 kya - 1.25 kya,
Early Pleistocene 2.58 mya - 7.8 kya Anatomical Differences between H. Antecessor and H. Heidelbergensis -H. Antecessor -1.6m tall, 1000-1150cc, More robust than H. Heidelbergensis, Evidence of
handedness, Possible language, Processing animal bone, Similar development rate as H. Sapiens Schöningen Site - 7 wooden spears Schoningen, Germany, 400kya, bones from approx 20 horses, signs of
butchering Brain and Behaviour - Brain size to body size is a function of allometry - the relationship of body size to shape - Small body size = larger brain, Large body size = smaller brain, Avg brain size is
1350cc, Gorilla avg 490cc, Encephalization quotient: the ratio of actual brain size to expected brain size given body size, Encephalization: evolutionary increase in the complexity or relative size of the brain.
Gut/Brain Trade Off Hypothesis -The shrinking of the intestines and gut area could be because more energy and resources were devoted to sustaining a larger brain, doesn’t really fit with postcranial evidence
of other hominins. Brain Size and Environmental Change Hypothesis- Long cold climate could force selection of a bigger brain, Problem: larger brain = more food needed, and in cold climate there is usually
less food.Cooking Hypothesis - Raw foods have low caloric value, Cooked, spoiled, and heavily processed foods have high caloric value, Change in patterns of food preparation likely began with H. Erectus -
increasing calories, gut/brain size trade off, AMH- loss of the gene to tolerate bitter foods, Cooking food made them more palatable, Better able to process sugars in starchy foods than Neanderthals and
Denisovans, Cooking likely bagan with H. Erectus - controlled fire use, Change in patterns of food prep helped decrease gut size and increase brain size - inconsistent with Neanderthals, Did Neanderthals
struggle to maintain the calories needed to feed their exergy expensive brains?, 75% of Neanderthal teeth show evidence of nutritional stress in the form of lines in the teeth where the enamel stopped growing,
More child skeletons on record Brain Development (as presented in Lecture) - Frontal lobe - reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, problem solving Temporal lobe - perception and
recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech Parietal lobe - movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital lobe - visual processing Homo Antecessor- 1.2 mya - 800 kya, Mixed traits
between H erectus and modern humans, Last common ancestor between H. sapiens and H. Neanderthalensis?, Same species as Heidelbergensis? Archaic Homo Sapiens - Earliest evidence of deliberate
processing of a hominin by another hominin, Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Lavallois Technique - prepared core controls flake size and shape, Increased cerebral volume during foetal stage, Cerebral growth
continues after birth in humans, not in chimps, Increase in cerebral volume during infant/juvenile stage, White Matter: bundles of axons covered in myelin that helps to send signals out to gray matter faster, Gray
Matter: contains neutrons and does all of the processing, encoding, and storage of information
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