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Final Exam Practice for BIOL 112 Dec 2012

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BIOL 112
Karen Smith

BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 1. Which of the following statements is true with respect to the metabolic process termed “respiration”? A. Oxygen must be involved as the electron acceptor. B. The Krebs cycle is involved since its reactions produce the majority of the ATP. C. ATP is synthesized directly by transfer of electrons in the Electron Transport Chain. D. An organic molecule must be involved as the electron donor. E. The energy that is trapped is derived from redox reactions. 2. Which of the following steps is directly involved in generating ATP via oxidative phosphorylation? A. Glycolysis. B. Krebs Cycle. C. Release of CO 2. D. Passage of protons through the ATP synthase E. Passage of electrons through the Electron Transport Chain. 3. A function of the Electron Transport Chain in bacteria is to: A. to link inorganic phosphate to ADP. B. to pump protons across the cytoplasmic membrane. C. to pump electrons across the cytoplasmic membrane. D. to reduce ADP to ATP. E. to reduce NAD +. 4. The coupling of the ETC Proteins and ATP synthase enables an organism to trap energy in the form of ATP. What are the principles by which this system works? 1) The formation of a concentration gradient. 2) The oxidation of the final electron acceptor. 3) A final electron acceptor will have high electronegativity. 4) A final electron acceptor with have low electronegativity. 5) The reduction of the final electron acceptor. 6) Active transport. 7) Facilitated diffusion. 8) Passive diffusion. A. All of the above. B. 1, 3, 5 and 7 C. 1, 2, 4 and 6 D. 1, 2, 4 and 8 E. 1, 2, 4 and 7 1 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 5. ATP can be produced during Glycolysis without O becau2e: A. The CO pr2duced by glycolysis is broken down by a series of reactions to regenerate the O2. B. Glycolysis splits oxygen from glucose providing it to the cell. C. ATP changes the configuration of the ETC chain in a way that water provides the oxygen for the reaction allowing glycolysis to continue. D. Oxygen is not required for the reactions in glycolysis. E. The organic molecules produced by glycolysis act as electron acceptors for the electron transport chain. 6. Glycolysis begins with an energy investment phase of 2 ATP. What is the overall net gain of ATP by the end of the process? A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 E. 1 7. Which of the following describe the role of the Krebs Cycle in cellular respiration? 1) To produce ATP by chemiosmotic synthesis. 2) To produce intermediates for biosynthesis (anabolism). 3) To produce NADH for ETC. 4) To extract electrons from carbon atoms. A. 1 and 4. B. 2 and 3. C. 2, 3 and 4. D. 1, 3 and 4. E. 1, 2, 3 and 4. 8. In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocate protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas the chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates proton from: A. the stroma to the chlorophyll. B. the matrix to the stroma. C. the stroma into the thylakoid membrane. D. the intermembrane space to the matrix. E. the light reactions to the Calvin cycle. 2 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 9. Which of the following statements describes the difference between fermentation and anaerobic respiration? A. Anaerobic respiration doesn’t depend on oxygen to accept electrons whereas fermentation does. B. Anaerobic respiration uses inorganic molecules as the electron acceptor whereas fermentation uses organic molecules. C. Fermentation uses organic electron donors and anaerobic respiration cannot use organic electron donors. D. Anaerobic respiration involves only oxidation reduction reactions to provide energy for ATP synthesis and fermentation involves only substrate level phosphorylation. 10. Which of the following is true with respect to fermentation? 1) During electron transport, the pyruvate reduces NAD+. 2) Fermentation takes place in the presence of oxygen. + 3) NAD is regenerated. 4) ATP is produced via substrate-level phosphorylation. 5) Only certain inorganic ions can be transformed as electron donors in fermentation. A. All 5. B. 1, 2, 3 and 4. C. 1, 3 and 5. D. 3 and 4. E. 2, 3 and 4. 11. In oxygenic photophosphorylation, the electrons that move through the electron transport chain end up on: A. a light harvesting complex. B. reduced NADPH. C. oxygen reducing it to water. D. a reduced inorganic molecule E. the phosphate added to ATP. - 12. A bacterium was found to synthesize ATP using nitrate (NO 2) as the energy source and O 2 as an electron acceptor. This metabolism of this bacterium could be classified as: A.A chemoheterotroph respiring aerobically. B. A chemoheterotroph fermenting. C. A chemoheterotroph respiring anaerobically. D.A chemolithotroph respiring aerobically. E. A chemolithotroph respiring anaerobically. 3 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 13. A bacterium was found to use acetic acid (CH COOH3 as an energy source when oxygen and no other electron acceptor were available. The oxidation of acetic acid by the bacterium produced methanol (CH OH) and carbon dioxide (CO ) as end-product 3 2 in their metabolism. The metabolism of this bacterium could be classified as: A. A chemoheterotroph respiring aerobically. B. A chemoheterotroph fermenting. C. A chemoheterotroph respiring anaerobically. D. A chemolithotroph respiring aerobically. E. A chemolithotroph respiring anaerobically. 14. ATP synthesis by substrate level phosphorylation requires which of the following? 1) An organic molecule containing a phosphate. 2) An electron transport chain. 3) An electron acceptor. 4) ADP. 5) A source of reduced NADP. A. All 5 B. 1, 3, 5 C. 1 and 4 D. 1, 2, 4 E. 2, 3, 5 15. Assume that a thylakoid membrane is punctured. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes? A. the splitting of water B. the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll C. the flow of electrons from PS II to PS I D. the synthesis of ATP E. the reduction of NADP + 4 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 16. In a PCR reaction, what is the correct order of the three steps (shown below) during each cycle of amplification? 1) Extension of primers 2) Denaturation of the template 3) Primer annealing A. 1, 2, 3 B. 2, 3, 1 C. 3, 1, 2 D. 1, 3, 2 E. 2, 1, 3 17. In a PCR experiment, a fragment of double stranded DNA was amplified using two complimentary primers with all the other components for the reaction. If you started with 1000 fragments of this DNA, how many double-stranded copies of your PCR product would you end up with after six cycles of PCR? PCR product A. 6000 B. 12, 000 C. 16, 000 D. 32, 000 E. 64, 000 18. In bacterial cells, establishing the proton gradient for chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that protons are moved from one place in the cell to another. Which of the following accurately describes this movement? A. Protons are moved from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. B. Protons are moved from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. C. Protons are moved out of the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space. D. Protons are moved along the cytoplasmic membrane from one protein to another. E. Protons are moved from the nutrient to the electron acceptor. 5 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 19. Which of the following describes the function of the enzyme DNA ligase in DNA replication? A. Formation of phosphodiester bonds between complementary base pairs during the formation of Okazaki fragments. B. Replaces RNA molecules in the primer with DNA nucleotides. C. Separation and unwinding of the strands of the DNA double-helix on the lagging strand. D. Links Okazaki fragments together by phosphodiester bonds. E. Synthesizes a RNA primer that used on the lagging strand. 20. Telomerase is an enzyme that can replicate the ends of linear DNA. Which of the following statements is false? A. The mechanism depends on having repeated sequences at the end of the DNA. B. The sequence of the ends of the DNA is determined by an RNA that is on the telomerase. C. The product of the telomerase provides sequences for enzymes to add an RNA primer to complete the lagging strand. D. Telomerase adds nucleotides in the 5’ to 3’ direction. E. Telomerase is active in all cells of the human body. 21. Which of the following statements describe the challenges associated with DNA replication in cells? 1) DNA molecules are very long. 2) The two strands of DNA are anti-parallel. 3) Both strands of DNA are used as templates. 4) DNA polymerases can only synthesize DNA in one direction. 5) DNA polymerases require primers to start synthesis. A. All 5. B. 4 and 5. C. 2, 4, and 5. D. 1, 4 and 5. E. 1, 2 and 4. 22. The interaction that sets the translation frame in bacteria involves: A. The ribosome and the tRNA. B. The RNA polymerase and the ribosome. C. The RNA polymerase and the promoter.. D. The ribosome and the mRNA. E .The tRNA and the initiation amino acid methionine. 6 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 23. Which of the following best describes the effects of a deletion of one base in a gene? A. There is only a minimal effect as all the other bases are intact. B. There is one less codon due to the deletion and change the primary structure of the protein. C. It can alter the reading frame at the point of mutation and change the primary structure of the protein. D. The primary structure of the protein has changed which results in a loss of function. E. The structure of the mRNA is affected thus preventing translation. 24. Which of the following mutations is most likely to have the greatest impact on a protein encoded by a bacterial gene? A. Addition of a single base in the 5’ UTR. B. A base pair deletion in the coding region. C. A deletion of 2 bases between the promoter and the ribosome binding site. D. A base pair substitution in the promoter sequence. E. A deletion of the transcriptional terminator sequence. 25. Deletion mutations in bacteria occur primarily because of: A. Deficiencies in biosynthesis of nucleotides. B. Treatment with UV light. C. Strand slippage during replication. D. Loss of nucleotides at the ends of the chromosome during replication. 26. From an E. coli LacZ wildtype strain, you find a mutant strain of that cannot make this protein (LacZ ). You use the PCR technique to check the strain and find that the length of the lacZ coding region is the same between the wildtype and mutant. However, the polypeptide sequence translated from the mutant gene is half of that of the wildtype. The type of mutation you have uncovered is most likely: A. A nonsense mutation. B. A silent mutation. C. A missense mutation. D. A deletion mutation. 7 BIOL 112 Practice Final December 2012 27. Primers 1 and 2 are used to amplify the template shown below (the primers are drawn so the 3’ end is at the arrowhead). Which pairs of primers will NOT amplify the DNA that is obtained from the product of primers 1 and 2? Primers
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