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BIO 121 MT1 Notes.doc

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 112

WEEK 2Cells and OrganismsSummarize the cell theory and how that applies to where cells come fromall organisms are made of cellsthe cell is the structural and functional unit of all living thingsall cells come from preexisting cellsall individuals in a population of singlecelled organisms are related by common ancestryin multicellular individuals all of the cells present are descended from preexisting cells tracing back to a fertilized eggfertilized eggcreated by the fusion of sperm and egg cells that formed in individuals of the previous generationall cells are based on the same chemistrycells trap and use energy to build the molecules that make them up metabolismbiochemistryDescribe the key characteristics of a selfreplicating organismDescribe the difference between cells and organisms and the conditions where the two mean the same thingIdentify the four major macromolecular molecular constituents of cellsproteinsamino acid subunitspolysaccharidescarbohydrates subunitsnucleic acids DNA RNAnucleotide subunitslipidscarbohydrate subunitsDescribe the typical size range for prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cellseukaryotic5 to 100 um in diameterprokaryotic1 to 10 um in diametereukaryotes larger than prokaryotesIdentify the three domains that comprise the tree of lifetree of life a family tree of organismstaxonomythe effort to name and classify organismstaxonomic groups most specific to least specificspecies genus family order class phylum kingdom5 kingdoms because of discovery of division between eukaryotes and prokaryotes morphologykingdom moneraall prokaryoteskingdom protistaseveral froups of unicellular eukaryoteskingdom plantaekingdom fungikingdom animaliaUsing Molecules to understand tree of life phylogenyto understand phylogeny of all organisms their actual genealogical relationshipsstudied rRNA bc it is an essential part of the machinery that all cells us to grow and reproduceif theory of evolution is correct then rRNA sequences should be very similar in closely related organisms but less similar in organisms that are less closely related groups closely related should share certain changes in rRNA that no other species havephylogenetic tree shows relationship among speciesbranches close to one another represents species that are closely relatedbranches further apart represent species that are more distantly relatednicknamed tree of life because the tree includes species from many different kingdoms and phylathe research into rRNA allowed biologists to find that the fundamental division in organisms is not between plants and animals or even between prokaryotes and eukaryotes rather it is betweenthe bacteriaanother group of prokaryotic single celled organisms called archaeathe eukaryotesto accommodate this new perspective new taxonomic level createddomain3 domainsdomain bacteria prokaryote unicellular organismsdomain archaea prokaryote unicellular organismsdomain eukarya eukaryote multicellular and unicellular organismsprotista algaefungiplantsanimalsDescribe the general characteristics that can be used to distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells look at table 71Eukaryotic cellsprokaryotic cellsmembrane bound nucleusnone nucleus also includes a region called nucleolus where RNA molecules found in ribosomes are manufacturedEukaryotic cellsprokaryotic cellschromosomes are found cell membrane inside a membrane bound phospholipid bilayercompartment called nucleusoften much larger in sizecytoplasm high solute concentration so in most habitats it is hypertonic relative to surrounding environmentcontain extensive amounts stiff cell wallof internal membranebc water enters cell by osmosis bc of hypertonic relationship cells volume will expandbacterial and archaeal cell walls are a tough fibrous layer that surrounds the plasma membranefeature a diverse and have single circular dynamic cytoskeletonchromosome in cytoplasmchromosome consists of a large DNA molecule associated with a small number of proteinsDNAgenetic informationproteinsstructural supportcytoplasm consists of chromosomes found in everything inside the localized area of cell called plasma membrane nucleoidexcluding nucleusgenetic material in cytosol fluid portion of nucleoid is not separated from rest of cytoplasm by cytoplasmmembrane
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