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BIOL 112
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GENETICS NOTESHersheyChase Experiment DNA not protein is hereditary material uses characters of protein and DNA to distinguish which is hereditary material in a nicely organized expDNA replication is Semiconservativechromosomes carriers of heriditary materialinstructions for building and operating cellnuclear division cell division parent cell gives rise to daughter cellDiploid cells contain two complete sets 2n of chromosomes reproduce by mitosis Eg Skin blood muscle cells also known as somatic cellsHaploid cells have half the number of chromosomes n as diploidie a haploid cell contains only one complete set of chromosomes a result of the process of meiosis a type of cell division in which diploid cells divide to give rise to haploid germ cells A haploid cell will merge with another haploid cell at fertilization Eg Cells used in sexual reproduction sperm and ovahomologous chromosome a chromosome pair of the same length centromere position and staining pattern with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci locationgametes sperm and eggsmale and femal reproductive cellssomatic cellsbody cells any other type of cell in a multicellular organismnuclear division producing gametes amount of hereditary mat in parent cell nucleus is reduced by half Daughter cells with sperm or eggs dont comtain same genetic mat as parent cell Meiosis produces reproductive cells sexual reproductionNew somatic cells are formed in eukaryotes hereditary mat in origianl cell and daughter cells constant Mitosis division of genetic material produces daugther cells genetically identical to parent usually accompanied by cytokinesis cell movement cytoplasm divides into two daugther cells Mitosis and Cytokinesis are responsible for 3 events in multicellular eukaryotes 1 growth 2Wound repair 3 reproductionAsexual reproduction production of offspring genetically identical to parentMeisisproduction of eggs and sperm Mitosis producing somatic cellsChromosomes are madue up in part of DNAconsists fo a singlelong DNA double helix that is wrapped around proeteins in an organized manner Prior to mitosis each chromosome is copied into two identical copies that stay attached to each other As mitosis starts they condense from long thin fibrous frms into compact structures that can be moved around the cell efficiently and are attached at centromere In the
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