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Final

BIOL 112 - Biology of the Cell - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE.pdfPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 112
Professor
Megan Barker
Study Guide
Final

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Sep. 03rd, 2014
BIOL 112 Biology of the Cell Lecture 1: Introductions and General Course
Information and Self-Replicating Thing Activity
Introductions
Biology 112 Teaching Team
Learning Center Hours
Textbook and Online Course information
This course encourages the active learning method
ο Pre-class: read the materials and prepare for lecture
ο In-class: participate in activities and discussions
ο Post-class: finish the post-class practice
Requirements for a self-replicating thing
Have a container for the replicating process to take place in
Have a set of instructions
Mechanisms to read the instructions
Pass on instructions to replicas
Gather raw materials
Use the raw materials and use the instructions to make new parts
Gather and transform energy
ο The next lecture is going to explicate how a cell possesses all these qualities
Key Words
Container
Instructions
Replicas
Transform energy
BIOL 112 - Biology of the Cell Lecture 2: Introduction to Cells and Organisms
Requirements for Cell Replication:
Have a set of instructions (DNA)
Mechanisms to read the instructions (enzymes and proteins)
Ability to replicate the information (enzymes and proteins)
Make new parts using the information (proteins)
Gather and transform energy (ATP synthesis)
Gather raw material (all the DNA, enzymes and proteins involved)
A chamber for the process to take a place in (cell membrane)
The Definition of a Cell:
The smallest unit of life
Membrane bound unit - can maintain an internal environment different than the
external
Can assimilate and transform material for its own use
ο IE, make ATP and absorb macromolecules
Can, but not always, reproduce using genetic information
The Cell Theory
Smallest structural unit of life

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Sep. 03rd, 2014
Can pass on hereditary information (replicate)
Come from pre-existing cell
Cells have Similar Genetic Instructions
Information stored in DNA
Interpreted and make new part using same processes
ο Copy DNA into RNA (transcription)
ο RNA made into proteins (translation)
ο This process is known as the central dogma of the cell
Cells in Relation with Organisms
Cells can be unicellular organisms
Cells can form specialized unit within a multicellular organism
Three Domains of Life
Archaea, Eukarya, and Bacteria
Archaea and bacteria were considered to be in the same category (prokarya)
Definition of Life
A living thing can function independently
Has mechanisms of metabolism
Able to maintain the internal environment, and to respond to the stimuli from the
external environment
Can grow and reproduce
Cells have all these characteristics
Key Words
Instruction
Membrane bound
Transform energy
Cell theory
Archaea
Eukarya
Bacteria
Prokarya
BIOL 112 Biology of the Cell Lecture 3:
Cell & Composition
Cell Size and Limitations
Macromolecules
Three Factors Limit the Cell Size:
Surface area to volume ratio
ο As the volume of cell increases, the ratio of surface area/volume ratio
decreases, meaning cell may not obtain as much materials transferred across
the membrane as they need
Diffusion distance
ο It is more ideal if macromolecules only have to travel a small distance
Dilution of concentration

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ο The solute concentration of cell’s internal environment decreases/increases as
a cell expands/contracts
Macromolecules
Table 1. The four types of macromolecules, and their monomers plus their bonds.
Macromolecules
Monomers
Bonds
Proteins
Amino Acid
Peptide Bond
Nucleic Acid
Nucleotide
Phosphodiester Bond
Carbohydrate
Sugar (monosaccharide)
Glycosidic Bond
Lipid
Fatty Acid
Ester Linkage
Proteins
Amino acid
ο Alpha carbon
ο Carbonyl group
ο Hydrogen atom
ο Amino group
ο Side chain (determines the identity of amino acid)
Amino group of one acid and carbonyl group of another join by peptide bond
ο Dehydration process (taking out of one hydrogen atom)
Nucleic Acid
Five carbon ring with a base and a phosphate group
Phosphate group in one acid links with the OH group of another
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