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BIOL 112 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Peptidoglycan, Unicellular Organism, Cytoskeleton

Course Code
BIOL 112
Karen Smith
Study Guide

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Unit 1: Introduction to cells
List and evaluate the key requirements (properties/ features) for self-replication:
1. Generate a container: Membranes (wall)
2. Gather raw material: Proteins
3. Gather or make parts: Proteins
4. Gather and transform energy: Proteins
5. Have a set of instructions: DNA
6. Pass instructions to replicas: Proteins and DNA
7. Mechanism to read the instructions: RNA and proteins
Summarize the cell theory and explain how that applies to where cells come from:
1. Sum: All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells
2. How: all-cells-from-cells: cells do not spring to life spontaneously, but are produced only
when pre-existing cells grow and divide
Discuss diversity in cell size, structures; cells as organisms verses cells in organisms; unicellular
versus multicellular:
List the three domains that comprise the tree of life:
1. Bacteria
a. Prokaryote, has peptidoglycan, has unique RNA, sensitive to traditional antibiotic
2. Archaea
a. Prokaryote, lives in extreme environment, does not have peptidoglycan in cell
wall, has unique RNA, not sensitive to antibiotics that affect bacteria-but are to
some that affect eukarya
3. Eukarya
a. Eukaryote, has different kingdoms under it, resistant to antibiotic that affect
bacteria, if with cell wall-does not contain peptidoglycan
Compare and contrast bacterial and eukaryotic cells:
1. Bacterial:
a. In nucleoid (plasmid common)
b. Extensive internal membrane (only photosynthetic species)
i. Limited number of organelles
c. Cytoskeleton- limited relative to eukaryotes
d. Small in size
2. Eukaryotes:
a. Inside nucleus (membrane bound)
b. Large number of organelles
c. Cytoskeleton- extensive
d. Most are bigger than prokaryotes
Unit 1: Bacterial Cell Growth
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