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Final

BIOL 121 Study Guide - Final Guide: Francis Crick, Electrochemical Gradient, Membrane Transport Protein

7 pages690 viewsFall 2012

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 121
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

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Biology Midterm 1 Review
All about Cells
Cell History
1665: Robert Hooke discovers cells, Leeuwenhoek observes cells such as Paramecium
1838: Schwann and Schleiden formulate the cell theory:
1. Cell is the unit of structure, physiology and organization in living things
2. Cell is a distinct entity and building block in construction of organisms
3. Spontaneous generation(Virchow 1858) NOT TRUE
4. Cells pass hereditary information from one generation to another(modern)
5. All cells are based on the same chemistry(modern)
6. Cells trap and use energy to build molecules that make them up(modern)
Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation using broth and a swan-necked flask
Cell Types
Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Nucleus in center of cell
No nucleus
Have ER and mitochondria
No ER or mitochondria
Means ‘before nucleus’
Larger in size
Smaller in size(with exceptions)
Cell Composition
C, H, O, N, P and S make [lipids, polysaccharides](CHO), [nucleic acids](nucleotides),
[proteins](amino acids). All these are dry weight of the cell or macromolecules. Make up
20-30% of cell.
Water(wet weight of the cell) makes up 70-80%.
Cell Size
Surface area squares, volume cubes each time the cell divides
Limiting factor to cell growth is SA to Volume ratio, inability to transport quickly or
efficiently
Cells’ Population Growth
Cells replicate through budding(daughter cells are smaller) or binary fission(divides into
2 equal-sized daughter cells) following the cell cycle:
1. Cell mass doubles, DNA replicates
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2. DNA separate, septum forms
3. Septum or cell wall is complete.
4. Cells separate
5. Repeat process
Bacteria replicate in four general phases:
1. Lag phase: cells adapt to the medium. May be shortened if cells come from a
previously identical condition
2. Exponential/log phase: cells divide quickly or slowly(depends on number, or
type of energy cell) for an amount of time
3. Stationary phase: cells still divide, but more slowly. Some die, and growth and
death rate level out
4. Death phase: cell death rate increases and most cells die. Some adapt and use
less energy.
During log growth,  
  
 
=population at the time t
g=time taken for population to double
=initial population size
 =number of generation per unit time
t=time allowed for growth
unit time
N=# of times for population to double
Macromolecules
Phospholipids and Lipid Bilayers
Phospholipids compose vesicles, micelles and the cytoplasmic membrane
Are amphipathic(dual-sympathy); have hydrophobic(water-hating) tails and
hydrophilic(water-loving) heads
Micelles
Lipid Bilayers/Vesicles
Created by hydrophilic heads facing water and hydrophobic tails facing each other
Slender tails
Stalky tails
Self-assemble
Plain surface
Have transport proteins etc. on leaflet(surface
of a bilayer)
Single-layered
Bilayered
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