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Final

BIOL 140 Open-book Final Exam Cheat-sheet (91% achievement)
BIOL 140 Open-book Final Exam Cheat-sheet (91% achievement)

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School
University of British Columbia
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 140
Professor
Carol Pollock
Semester
Fall

Description
measured-response experiment (DESIGN P68 2 paragraph, EXAMPLE procedure P88) -vary the level of factor being tested and measure a response -biological context-the relevance of the study to the organism in its natural environment -alternate/null hypotheses (P63): scientific name/abiotic factor testing/how response is measured e.g. Caloric intake does affect the activity level of mice, Mus musculus, as measured by the rate of movement on an exercise wheel -prediction is directional: as….increase,….increase -assumptions: conditions/processes that cannot be controlled or measured with equipment available -need to be specific -don’t negate variation in data caused by uncontrollable extraneous variables, experimental error, biological variation -if assumptions are not valid and influence the outcome of the experiment, then need to discuss that when interpreting the results eg. organisms would react the same way in lab as they would in their natural environments eg. measuring activity level on an exercise wheel is equivalent to measuring activity levels when the animal has freedom of movement -range: natural range & range of tolerance -three treatment levels including the control, be at equal increments throughout the range -studies show that mice typically require about 10 calories/day but cansurvive on as few as 7 calories/day: 7, 10, amd 13 calories/day is better than 7, 8.5, and 10 if 13 calories/day is not a lethal treatment, b/c it’s broader and the different treatment levels are more likely to produce different responses -treatment control, used to compare with the results for each of the other treatment levels -if the tested factor is normally NOT present or CAN BE REMOVED from the experiment, the treatment control eliminates that factor eg. no fertilizer in treatment control, all others are the same -if you’re CHANGING THE RANGE of a normally PRESENT factor that CANNOT BE REMOVED, then the control is the most commonly found treatment in nature (called reference treatment) -doesn’t have to be the centre value eg. PH cannot be removed, so choose the most natural one -replicates: each organism tested in a treatment is a replicate -minimum 3 replicates per treatment level, including the treatment control -replicate much be a fresh organism, not repeatedly used in each experiment -test organisms only once, otherwise not very sensible; don’t stress them; one at a time so no interactions between any two organisms; replicates are independent -the more replicates, the more confidence b/c reduced error; NOT the more accurate the results -extraneous abiotic factors: need to monitor (temp/water loss/salinity/wave action/light intensity/feeding opportunities/gas exchange) and keep them constant -experimental error: NOT the same as procedural error (sloppiness), which is avoidable equipment error: differences in calibration human error: inherent human differences in reaction time that affects timing and recording -Biological variation: inherent differences among organisms (genetic makeup, age, sex, health, etc) -hard to avoid, but can be decreased by limiting the characteristics of the group of organisms you’re studying (eg. use organisms of the same age, sex, etc) -not possible in BIO140, therefore this is a major contributor to differences observed among replicates, so make good qualitative observations -trials: all replicates of all treatments performed at the same time. Additional trials are the same experiment performed at different times choice experiment (DESIGN P72 bottom overview; EXAMPLE procedure P90) -present possible options of a factor to the organisms and record choices as frequenct events -biological context-the relevance of the study to the organism in its natural environment -alternate/null hypotheses (P70): scientific name, abiotic factor testing, how response is measured eg. the odour of the bedding material has no effect on site selection in mice, Mus musculus -prediction is directional: organism will avoid….and prefer….. -assumptions: conditions/processes that cannot be controlled or measured with equipment available -need to be specific -don’t negate variation in data caused by uncontrollable extraneous variables, experimental error, biologic
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