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Exam Study Guide Hey guys this is the whole study guide I wrote up for Microbiology 140, it`s long but it encompasses a lot of what was tested for the exam

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BIOL 140
Barbara Butler

Microbiology Notes Lecture 2. Learning Objectives: 1) the historical origins of microbiology; 2) the concepts of cell structure and function 3) the concept of microbial diversity Pasteurs experiment disproved the theory of spontaneous generation Louis Pasteurs experiment consisted of a flask and a liquid in the flask, the liquid was then sterilized and what was found is that when dust cannot enter the flask, the liquid remain sterile, but when the dusk came in contact with the liquid, microorganisms grow in the liquid. Kochs Postulates 1. The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals 2. The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture 3. Cells from a pure culture of the suspected organism should cause disease in a healthy animal 4. The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original Kochs conclusion specific organisms cause specific disease Kochs postulates can be extended beyond disease-causing organisms evidence other processes are a result of microbial activity N2fixation biodegradation of some pollutant Comparative structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Prokaryotic: nucleoid, no organells Eukaryotic: nucleus, organelles Viruses: very small microorganisms (10s of nm dia), but not cells not dynamic open systems do not take nutrients or expel wastes static structure; behave as more-or-less as particles, except when infecting host possess genes but no biosynthetic machinery rely on host machinery to reproduce all types of cells may be infected by viruses plant viruses, animal viruses viruses of bacteria = bacteriaphages Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and phylogeny: all organisms possess ribosomes -> rRNAs are useful molecules for assessing relationships between organisms rRNA genes isolated gene sequences determined and compared Phylogentic tree depicts differences between organisms analyzed The Five Kingdoms of Life Plants Animals Fungi Monera (prokaryotes) Protists (slime molds, flagellates, Giardia) Human-centric organization
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