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Introductory Research Report on Artemia Salina.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 140
Professor
Chin Sun

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Introductory Research Report on Artemia Salina Artemia Salina, an aquatic crustacean species was first discovered in Urmia Lake in 1982 ( Dumitrascu 201). It is commonly referred to as sea monkey or brine shrimp and largely resembles the shrimps we consume. The average length of an Artemia's body is 8-10mm. The females achieve longer height compared to males as they can reach up to 10-12 mm (Dumitrascu 201). Bodies are segmented and divided into three sections: head, thorax, and abdomen ( Dumitrascu 2011). The bodies have 11-20 segments in total and the first 11 segments have bristle like appendages called phyllopodia. The next two segments consist of reproductive organs and the last segments are connected to the tail. The whole body is coated with a flimsy, flexible exoskeleton of chitin and with muscles attached to it internally. The chitin sheds periodically and females shed them usually after ovulation. Body color differs according to the salinity in the water; green in low salinity and red in high salinity(Dumitrascu 2011). They have two compound eyes set on flexible stalks and reduced mouthparts( Abatzopoulos et al. 200). The ommatidia of the compound eyes are made from retinula cells and crystalline cone and ( Abatzopoulos et al. 2) crystalline cone is integral in adapting light and dark. The crystalline tract shortens as it adapts to dark and focal length changes in the glycogen body and the distal part becomes thicker simultaneously( Abatzopoulos et al. 20. The ventral frontal organs are considered to have a photo sensory function so are the monoaminergic bodies in the cavity receptor organ( Abatzopoulos et al. 20). The appendages and phyllopodia are involved in filter-feeding and also in osmoregulation which will be discussed later. The distribution of brine shrimp is restricted by climatological conditions. Artemia populations are rarely present in humid climate types where yearly evaporation exceeds yearly precipitation( Abatzopoulos et al. 20). They can endure high concentration of salt ; estimated up to 300 grams of salt per litre of water Dumitrascu 2011 ).They are found to also be able to tolerate high oxygen deficiency, 0.5 milligram per liter for adults and 0.3 milligrams per liter for naupliia (Dumitrascu 2011). Dissolved oxygen and salinity are two of the most important factors for survival and growth of natural Artemia population. If the dissolved oxygen of the environment drops below 2 ml 0/1 their feeding, swimming, and other external activities are affected and if the dissolved oxygen content is below 1.5 ml 0/1, respiration falls radically and the organism stop moving and bank on anaeorobic metabolic pathways to subsist ( Abatzopoulos et al. 20). Natural Artemia population thrives better in higher salinity environments compared to other zooplanktons as demonstrated by a study of salt lakes salinity ranging from 2.4 to 370 ppt in the Saskatchewan area by Hammer ( Abatzopoulos et al. 2). Artemia has no anatomical defense mechanism against predation but the organisms have developed an ecological defense mechan
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