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Final

Final Exam Review 2.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 200
Professor
Ninan Abraham
Semester
Fall

Description
•  Question 2. Short Answer •  Explain in one or 2 sentences why plants need to have mitochondria in every cell, even when the sun is shining. •  There are no motor proteins that move on intermediate filaments. Can you suggest a reason based on the structure of the intermediate filaments? What does this tell you about motor proteins? Question 3. Fill in the blanks: •  A small GTP-binding ___________led assembles around the neck of each coated vesicle and helps in pinching off the vesicle from the membrane. •  __________ is the motor protein that moves along cytoplasmic microtubules and towards the plus end of the microtubule. Question 4. Design an experiment using appropriate experimental technique(s) to study the kinesin-assisted transport of macromolecules. 1.  Immunofluorescence microscopy: Primary antibodies bind to cytoskeletal proteins. Secondary antibodies labeled with a fluorescent tag bind to the primary antibody. Cytoskeletal proteins glow in the fluorescence microscope. 2.  Fluorescence techniques: Fluorescent versions of cytoskeletal proteins are made and introduced into living cells. Fluorescence microscopy and video cameras are used to view the proteins as they function in the cell. 3.  Computer-enhanced digital videomicroscopy: High resolution images from a video camera attached to a microscope are computer processed to increase contrast and remove background features that obscure the image. 4.  In vitro and in vivo studies [Figs. 17-19 to 17-22, pp 585-88] Question 5. Three phospholipids X, Y and Z are distributed in the plasma membrane as shown. For which of these phospholipids does a flippase probably exist? a. X only b. Z only c. X and Y d. Y and Z e. X and Z Explain your answer briefly. ANSWER: Three phospholipids X, Y and Z are distributed in the plasma membrane as shown. For which of these phospholipids does a flippase probably exist? C = X and Y Explain your answer briefly. Lipids are inserted into the membrane on the lumen face of the SER (which corresponds to cytosolic side of the plasma membrane). Therefore both X and Y would need flippases to move to the external leaflet. Must know that flipping can’t occur spontaneously and that all lipids are inserted into the same leaflet. Must mention SER. Question 6. Based on your understanding of cell structure and function, please state if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE and provide an explanation for your choice. •  a) Membrane-bound and free ribosomes, are structurally and functionally identical and differ only in the proteins that they happen to be making at a particular time. •  b) All of the glycoproteins in the intracellular membranes have their oligosaccharide chains facing the lumen, whereas those in the plasma membrane have their oligosaccharide chains facing the outside of the cell •  c) The pH of the chloroplast thylakoid space (or lumen) increases in the light. a) Membrane-bound and free ribosomes, are structurally and functionally identical and differ only in the proteins that they happen to be making at a particular time. TRUE. Cytosolic ribosomes are translating proteins with no sorting signals/ proteins destined to remain in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes of the RER are translating proteins with ER signal sequence, i.e. the subsequent events leading to attachment of ribosomes to the ER membrane are a result of the interaction of the signal peptide amino acid sequence with the signal recognition particle (SRP) and the SRP receptor in the ER membrane. b) All of the glycoproteins in the intracellular membranes have their oligosaccharide chains facing the lumen, whereas those in the plasma membrane have their oligosaccharide chains facing the outside of the cell TRUE. For glycoproteins as the oligosaccharide chains are transferred onto the protein in the ER lumen, then further modified in the Golgi. When those proteins are secreted via exocytosis, the oligosaccharide chains are facing the extracellular space or comment on extracellular space being topologically equivalent to endomembrane lumen. c) The pH of the chloroplast thylakoid space (or lumen) increases in the light. FALSE. The pH of the thylakoid space decreases due to accumulation of protons driven into the space by the flow of electrons along the photosynthetic electron transport chain. QUESTION 7: Tubulin polymerization A typical time course for polymerization of purified tubulin to form microtubules is shown below. Explain the different parts of the curve labeled A, B and C. How would the curve change if centrosomes were added at the onset? ANSWER: Tubulin polymerization A typical time cou
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