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BIOLOGY 116 - textbook notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 200

Biology and the Tree of Life10112013Organisms share 5 fundamental characteristics they acquire and use energy they are all made of cells the fundamental unit of life they contain genetic information DNA which can replicate All organisms are also the products of evolutionThe Cell Theory All organisms are made up of cells and all modern cells come from preexisting cells EVOLUTION a change in characteristics of a population over time Natural selection occurs when two conditions are met1 Individuals in a population very in characteristics that are heritable2 Certain versions of these heritable traits must help individuals survive or reproduce bettermore efficiently more so than other variations POPULATION a group of individuals of the same species living in the same time same conditionsFITNESS the ability of an individual to produce offspring ADAPTATION a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment There are three fundamental domains of organismsBacteriaUnicellularArchaeaUnicellularEukaryaMulticellularPHYLUM major lineages within each domain The Scientific MethodThe scientific method is a set of rules and techniques that when used properly eliminate bias and show us how things really work in natureYou form a hypothesisthen test itThe more you follow the rules and the more bias you are able to eliminate the better your results will beReplication accounts for variation in the application of the treatmentThings that might vary include conditions under which subjects are grown or maintainedindividual organism variation age sex etcplots or populations NOTE the results of any experiment can be used to infer patterns only within the bounds of the variation covered by the experimental subjects or unitsWhat are controls and why do we need themWe need to control for all the variables in an experiment that might affect the outcome All the subjects must be treated in every aspect except for onethe experimental variableThe experimental variable group MUST be compared to a control group that DOES NOT get the treatmentALL other factors must be the same for the experiment to be fairWater and CarbonThe Chemical Basis of Life10112013To understand how a molecule effects your body or the molecules role you must understand how it is put togetherSTRUCTURE AFFECTS FUNCTION ELECTRONEGATIVITY an atoms ability to attract and hold other atomsWhen electrons arent shared equally in covalent bonds polarity comes into playPOLAR BOND a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally between atoms resulting in the more electronegative atom having a partial negative charge and the other a partial positive charge NONPOLAR BOND a covalent bond in which elements are shared equally between two atoms of the same or similar electronegativityWaterIts PropertiesWater is an excellent solventwhen two liquid water molecules approach each other the partial positive charge of hydrogen attracts the partial negative charge of oxygen This weak electrical attraction forms a hydrogen bond between moleculesHydrogen bonding makes it possible for almost any charged or polar molecule to dissolve in waterWater is cohesive because of the hydrogen bonds that form between molecules It is also adhesive and adheres to surfaces that have any polar or charged components ex transport of water in plantsCOHESION the binding of like moleculesADHESION the binding between unlike molecules
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