Comparison of Skulls and Feeding Styles.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 204
Professor
Wolfram Tetzlaff
Semester
Fall

Description
Comparison: Skulls and Feeding Styles Agnathans Gnathostomes Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Tetrapods Chondocranium  Does not ossify.  Partly or completely ossified.  Also forms walls and roof of braincase.  Enveloped in dermatocranium. Dermatocranium  Extra set of opercular bones covering gills. Splanchnocranium  Spiracle (reduced gill opening) remain Splanchnocranium partially or completely replaced by dermal bone. between hyoid and mandibular arches.  Hyomandibula -> stapes  Fish: Arches I and II form jaws.  Synapsids: (Allowed muscles to insert closer to teeth.) × Articular -> Dentary bone × Quadrate -> Squamosal bone  Quadrate -> Incus  Articular -> Malleus Feeding Type  Paleostyly – Agnathans  Euautostyly – Fish  Modified Hyostyly  Metautostyly – Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds. × No jaws; branchial arches used × Mandible articulates with × Articular and Quadrate bone to support gills instead. unsupported palatoquadrate. × Main attachment of jaw to × Jaw attached to braincase  Amphistyly – Ancient sharks hyomandibula. through quadrate bone. × Jaw supported by both the × Symplectic bone helps suspend  Craniostyly – Mammals hyomandibula and the jaws. × Upper jaw merged with floor of chondrocranium. braincase.  Hyostyly – Modern sharks × Jaws supported by hyomandibula. × Complex loose and dynamic. Feeding  Bottom feeding, sucking, mud  Hyostyly -  Suction feeders.  Mammal
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