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Bio 260 Final Sheet 2.pdf

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BIOL 260
Patricia Schulte

day and should expand during the night much lower than seawater. Maintain extracellular fluid osmolarity >= than that of seawater (urea and (lower transpiration) TMAO keep it this way (need a bit to make it osmalarity high even though low ion level) -water evaporation through stomata due -sharks ions and water flows in(pees out extra water and salts are [] by salt gland and excreted w/ to a water concentration difference urine generates surface tension, which is -producing urea and uric acid needs energy but less water loss b/c concentrated when release utilized to pull water column to leaves. -nephorn processes: 1. filtration (any small solutes and water are filtered from the blood and enter the - Sieve-tube member: membrane- bound, lumen of an excretory tubule) 2. rabsorbtion (useful solutes and water are transported across epithelial sugar- conducting cell lacking nucleus and returned to and major organelles -Sieve plate: blood) 3. between sieve-tube members secreation •Companion cell: -has nucleus and (additional organelles, -responsible for all the unwanted leave activities in phloem blood enter -active sink just flows. Storange sinks needs additional energy excretory -(tree in the day shrinks) tubule) 4. PLANT HORMONE -(stomatal opening increases with increasing light intensity) excretion -blue light stem elongation stomatal opening, chloroplast movement (portion gets -red light seed germinates sunlight triggers sprouting in species that need full sunlight secreted as -(far red stem lengthens) plants will attempt to escape the shade wastes, urine) signal transduction = 1 reception 2 transduction (signal into response) 3 response -transfer of fluid -hiher light intensity causes protons to leave guard cells = higher pH from blood into -when blue light strikes a photoreceptor: 1Pumping by H+-ATPases increases. Protons leave guard kidney tubule (occurs in glomerulus) called glomerul filtra cells 2. K+ and Cl▯ enter cells along electrochemical gradients via inward- directed K+ channels and -Filtration across the glomerulus is a result of a pressure differential between the blood in the H+/Cl▯ cotransporter. 3. H20 follows by osmosis 4 cell swells and pore opens glomerular capillaries and the lumen of the Bowman’s capsul (Hydrostatic pressure gradient and -chlorophyl absorbs blue light which is then reemitted by red light and then reabsorbed (far red has Oncotic (osmotic) pressure gradient ) low absorbance wih clorophyll) -regulation of GFR by vascocronricting afferent and efferent arteriole -more far red light for lower plants (ratio of Pr:Pfr indictes to the plant how much room it has to grow. -processes proximal tube = 65% sodium reabsorbed and 2/3 water reabsorbed Lower ratio = indication that there is sunlight above and it can grow upwards) -osmotic gradient because of loop of henle -phytochromes (pr red absorbing) shade = high pr:pfr ratio (low Pfr:Pr) or high FR:R b/c of selective -Fluid leaving proximal tubule is isosmotic. Reabsorbitopn in absorbtion of red by canopy (high Pr:Pfr =germination/growth) (more red light = higher pfr:pr = rest causes decrease in osmolarity which produces dilute higher seed germination) filtrate -High R:Fr = low Pr:Pfr ratio (high Pfr:Pr) or sunlight -collecting duct reabsorbs -during night pfr goes to pr slowly (accumulation of pr indicates length of night) water so concentrated -Pr:Pfr increases during the night w/ maximum reached just before dawn (ADH regulates -exposure of red light stimulates germination (sunny) while exposure of Fr inhibits germnation (shade) permeability) - dose of red light prevents flowering. Reversed by dose of fr red (dose of red increases fr:r and dose -overhydrated so lower of far red decrease fr:r) ADH less h20 absorbed so -short flash of light stops plants from flowering that need long night and instead short night plants dilute flower -dehydrated so higher adh more h20 absorbed so concentrated - Dose of red light increases Pfr : Pr ratio (i.e. decreases Pr : Pfr ratio) - Blood vessels associated with the tubules and collecting duct carry Dose of far red light decreases Pfr : Pr ratio (i.e. increases Pr : Pfr ratio) away the water in the blood - auxin (growth hormone), Gibberelin (cell elongation), Ctokynin (regualor cell division), Abscisic H2O/SUGAR PLANTS –roots/soil –(xylem)àinorganic acid (stress hormone), Ethylene (gaseous hormone, ripening and senescence) nutrientsIIsucrose–(ploem)-leaves -HGH = auxin in plants (phototropism plants bending toward light, specifically blue light (receptor phloem moves 2 ways. Xylem only 1 called PHOT1. Blue light causes phosphorylation of PHOTH1) cascade effect -reduce h2o loss through open stomata by located under leaf (CAM -coeloptile tip reacts to blue light and sends the signal to the auxin hormone (auxin acumulaton on one stomata open night) side causes it to bend to the other side) -water = high water potential to low water potential (also to low - Blue light causes redistribution of higher auxin concentrations to shaded side solute potential) - H accumulation in cell wall loosens cellular micro-fibrils (via expansin proteins) and creates an -Water potential (▯) = Pressure potential (▯p) + Solute (Osmotic) electrochemical gradient favoring K and sucrose uptake into cells. Decreased osmotic potential drives potential (▯s) water influx. Increased t
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