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Final

Bio 260 Final Sheet 1.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 260
Professor
Patricia Schulte
Semester
Winter

Description
Neural Animal Function – motor pathway fastest (begins in spinal cord ends at skeletal muscle) - - excited e a) fluorescence (reemission of photons) B)resonance transfer -norepinephirne causes fast reponse changes because it acts on preexisting proteins ca(tsrcaandsefeerffect of energy /w adjacent pigments c) redox rxns(pigments = oxi acceptor =red) -sympathetc pairs with adrenal medulla which releases norepinhpirne and epinephrine (mostly epi) - antenna complex moves e from B to rxn centre. C e from rxn center to e -CRF (hypothalamus) causes ACTH (anterior pituitary causes cortisol (in blood and slow) (adrenal acceptor (pheophytin) (stroma has low [H+] thklakoid has high [H+]low ph cortex) useful for recovery cortisol -PQ transports e and H thylakoid lumen (creates H gradient) - memb potential is difference of voltage across memb (directly adjacent not spread throughtout) -Ferrodioxin is oxidized and Nadp reductase transers ion forming NADPH - neurons send signals by depolarizing or hyperpolarizimg (resting -70) -Cyclic =This pathway produces ATP but no NADPH Also no O2 is -charge flows through cell as a result of potential diff (voltage) 3Na out 2 K in produced since e- are recycled and there is no need for water splitting -2 factors involced in create memb potential a) diff in charge inside and outside cell (battery) b) ion - Excited e at PSI flows (via Ferredoxin) to PQ, then PC and back to PSI channel for ions to flow from inside to outside (circuit). Changing circuit allows nerurons to change -low light (increase chlorophyll) levels limit PS, excess can poison memb potential (photoinhibiton) -The electrical gradient that exactly balances the force due to the chemic al gradient is called the -1) Fixation (i.e. formation of a C-C bond) equilibrium potential (calculate with nerst) 2) Reduction (produces G3P used for sugars) –Requires ATP and NADPH -At equil potential no net movement of that ion (chem gradient and elec gradient in equil) 3)Regeneration (recycles the -memb potential tells size and strength of equil gradient. -70mV inside cell means favors + in RuBP for another cycle - -open channels = movemtn until equil potential = membrane potential -ions will keep moving until the membrane potential reaches the equilibrium potential for that ion - RuBisco’s active site is bound -changes in memb potential b/c changes in memb permeability with CO2 or O2. O2 binds = -opening Na channels will drop the membrane potential since Na will flow in at the same rate as K, poisoned C fixation by RuB and the difference in permeability will decrease, moving the membrane potential closer to 0 -C3 CO2 by diffusion (can’t [] -Permeability change causes a graded potential. This type of change in membrane potential i s called it) a graded potential (or a postsynaptic potential) -C4 stores CO2 in chem form. -charge is moving through cell. positive pushes positive which push more positive Shuttles it to Rub so high [Co2] -short neurons can signal w/ graded potentials -C4 trapping and release diff -long neurons signal w/ action potentials (all or nothing) (memb potential changes form -70 to +40 time CAM at same time and then decreases again PLANT NUTRIENTS – Clay and organic matter have net - charge -graded potential need binding of neurotransmitter to -anions are readily available but easily washed. Cations are opposite open AP need change in V to open - -initial membrane depolarization that opens the Soil Sand Clay Organic -Good soil = mixture of clay and sand channel is due to a graded potential property -Fe limits algal biomass Initial depolarization (due to a graded potential) -Nutrient aquiured against [] b/c plant opens some voltage-gated Na channels . H20 L H H has more nutrie Causes further depolarization that opens even more Nutrient L H H -growing root look4 new nutria source (no uptake) voltage-gated Na channels. Positive feedback O2 H L H -polar/hydrophilic move with channels -resting potential -70 closed but can open. Threshold Root H L H (root uses Atp-H pump to create (-50) to peak potential (30) open and moving Na. electrochem gradient = + ions into from peak (30) to resting (-70) closed an not capable root cells against [] gradient of opening -outisde = net + inside = net – protons move down electrical gradient. Against [] -repolarization b/c open k volage channels gradient. Anions enter against both (cotranspot) symport = same -AP triggered when memb potential crosses -to prevent excess uptake: passive exclusion (no channel for that ion) active exclusion (stores ions in vacule) H/Na antiprt so more Na in vacule threshold -epiphytes = no soil. Carnivorous = eat for nitrogen. Bacteria are n fixing -If a stimulus induces a graded potential which depolarizes the cell membrane such that V at the axon hillock reaches the threshold potential, an action potent
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