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Response to Before Midterm Material "Yellow Pages" Study Questions Organized, detailed responses to the "yellow page" questions found at the end of each lecture note. Restructured from the lecture notes so that it's easy to read and understand!

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 331
Bruce Reed

Lecture 1 What are the defining features of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic Eukaryoticunicellular bacteria and archaeaunicellular or multicellular 70S ribosome 50S30S80S ribosome 60S40Sno introns noncoding sequencehave introns noncoding sequencehave polycistronic mRNAno polycistronic mRNAinternal ribosome binding sitesbind to ribosome by means of 5 mRNA capno defined nucleus no membrane boundDNA enclosed in membrane bound nucleus intracellular compartment to house DNA membrane bound organellessingled closed compartment surrounded bymitosis linear chromosomes plasma membranesexual reproduction through meiosissize 12 m in diametercytoskeleton filaments of actin and microtubules What is the endosymbiotic theory certain organelles originated as freeliving bacteria that were taken inside another cell both cell engulfed and cell engulfing provided each other with something the other cell needed in a helping relationship where they both can benefit from something the other one can provideengulfment of small objects and other cells by animal cells or freeliving protozoa occurs through phagocytosis bacteria engulfed evaded digestion and evolved in symbiosis with engulfing cellfor mitochondria engulfing cell received plenty of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation in exchange for providing shelter and nourishment to the cell engulfedfor chloroplast photosynthetic bacteria engulfed equipped engulfing cell with ability to eat light no longer need for high motilityeukaryotic cells engulfing other cells for purpose of symbiosis requires ability of cells to change shape large flexible membrane and elaborate cytoskeleton to facilitate membrane movement and support for eukaryotic cells that eat light lost ability to perform phagocytosis and change cell shape rapidly due to no need for high motility How many genes are there in the human genomeHumans have a 3 200 Mb genome with approximately 25 000 genesmany are noncoding intron sequences that are taken out before transcription process of mRNAWith respect to proteins what is secondary structuredue to different sequence of amino acid side chains secondary structures are formed commonly into alpha helices and beta sheets due to the interaction between the AA side chains with each other alpha helix conformation of helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between backbone amino NH group and backbone carbonyl group CO 4 positions away beta sheet hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds AA side chains extend above and below the sheet see page 134 of textWhich amino acids are positive charged Negatively charged Which AA are nonpolar Negative aspartic acid Dglutamic acid EPositive Are His Lies Ken Runs Hardarginine Rhistidine Hlysine KUncharged Polar Never Question Your Teachers Statements asparagine Nglutamine Qtyrosine Ythreonine Tserine SLecture 2 What is the cell doctrinethe discovery that all plant and animal tissues were aggregates of individual cellsidea emerged after the first light microscope emerged What is the diameter of an average eukaryotic cell1020 mWhat is the limit of resolution for the light microscope Does this mean that objects smaller than this limit cannot be seenThe best limit of resolution for a light microscope is 02 m does not mean that objects smaller than this cannot be seen but they will appear as blurred and at least 02 m thickDefinition of limit of resolution the minimum separation at which two objects appear distinct this depends on the wavelength of light and numerical aperture of the lens used Cells are small colourless and translucent To be visualized with the light microscope one must enhance contrast In what ways can contract be enhanced in light microscopy using stains bright field microscopy absorb light of certain wavelengths but may also introduce contrast by reducing amplitude of light passing through stained section of the cell reduction amplitudeless bright phase contrast microscopy using an optical system to enhance the phase shift due to light being retarded passing through a specimen from 4 to 2 to make the phase shift visible and enhance contrast o looks like theres a halo around it differentialinterferencecontrast DIC or Nomarski microscopy more coplex optical system that also exploits interference effects to impart contrast o polarized light to give more 3D image
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