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Bio361-cable properties

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 361

Synapse3Signal Transductionvia ReceptorEnzymesReceptor guanylate cyclases generate cyclic GMPligand binds to receptor guanylate cyclaseconformational chngeactivate the guanylate cyclase domain of the receptorproduce cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP2nd msgerlow mwdiffusible communicate signals win cellbinds activate cGMPdependent protein kinasePKGenzymes that phosphorylate other proteins serinethreonine residuesphosphorylated proteins active other proteinspropagateamplify signal thru the cellphosphorylation cascadesignal transduction pathway initiated by receptor guanylate cyclases each step amplies the signalatrial natriuretic peptideANPs neg feedback sysregulate BPproduced by muscle cells in the heart in response to increase in BPvasodilationinduce the kidney to response to increase in BVollower BP to normalReceptor tyrosine kinases signal thru Ras proteinscritical for cell growthproliferationchemmsgers binds to a receptor tyrosine kinasebound receptor associate wother tyrosine kinase form dimers autophosphorylationdimerized receptors phosphorylating each other on multiple tyrosinegrowth factor receptorsactivated kinase signal to the Ras proteinRas protein bindhydrolyze GTPfunction as switches by cycling btw the active stateGTPbound and the inactive stateGDPboundcatalyzed by GTPaseactivating proteinsGAPsguanine nucleotidereleasing proteinsGNRPsreceptor tyrosine kinases signal thru GAPsGNRPs to regulate Rasactivate a serinethreonine phosphorylation cascade in animal cellsActivated Ras signals to a MAPkinasekinasekinaseMAPKKKphosphorylates a MAPkinasekinaseMAPKKphosphorylate a MAPkinaseMAPKphosphorylate other protein kinases cellular proteinstranscription factorsElk1and Junregulate the transcription of other transcription factorsvarious genesamplify original chemsignal30human cancersinvolve mutations in the genes encoding Rasturn the Ras protein on constitutivelyactive when theres no ligandsend strong signal to cellstimulate it to growdivide uncontrollablyinsulin receptortargetInsulin Receptor Substratedocking protein that binds to other intracellular signaling proteins that participate in insulin signal transductionfunction as dimerbin
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