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Bio361-muscle systems+endocrine

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BIOL 361
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Muscle SystemsEnergy MetabolismATPin actinomyosin ATPase for tissues similar in structure to ligamentsone endconnective tissue binds to crossbridge cyclingin NaK ATPase to reestablish ion gradients across the boneanother endtendon bindsvarious pts along the belly of the the sarcolemmal membrane after each APin Ca2 ATPase to transport muscleconnects both ends of muscles to bonesskeletal cpnts act as cytoplasmic Ca2 back into the sarcoplasmic reticulumglycolysismechanical leversindividual long bones in locomotor appendages of mitochondria support diff types of locomotionmuscles meet E demands vertebrates meetarticulatejointsbathed in synovial uid to reduce the using a combo of preformed phosphagensadenylate pool ATPADP friction btw 2 opposing bonesdiff in structuresrange of mvemntballandphosphoguanidine cmpds phosphocreatine vertebrates phosphoarginine socket jointshipshoulderend of one boneconcaveconvex on the other phosphoglycocyaminephosphotaurocyamine phospholambricine endgreatest range of motionhinge jointskneeelbowmvemnt in one planeinvertebratesATPproducing pathwayspreexisting Ecan support levers3elementsfulcrumpt of rotationjointweightexerted by the object to locomotion only for very short periods thusother pathways of ATP pdtn are be movedforcegenerated by muscle contractionforce armdistance btw criticalmost locomotor activity is supported by some combo of anaerobic the forcearmdistance btw elbowpt of insertion of the biceps musclesglycolysismitochondrial aerobic metabolism5 differences1metabolic weight armregion btw the fulcrumweightmechanical advantageration of efciencyATP per glucose mcle in oxidative phosphorylationglycolysis the lefty of the force arm to the length of the weight armvases on the relative all muscles reply on oxidative phosphorylation to support metabolism position of the 3elementsClass1crowbarfulcrummidis close to restduring recovery from activityslowtwitch muscles reply on oxidative weightlarge MAforce armweight arma min amt of force can be used to lift phosphorylation to support muscle activity 2rate of ATP pdtnglycolysisless a large weightClass2 wheelbarrowweight is in btw the fulcrumforceefcient but generate ATP faster animals that move fast rely on glycolysis Class3mostly used in animal locomotionno MAforce armweight to provide the ATP that allows it to reach high sprint speedshave limited armleast effective in translating muscle force into leverage can increase stores of glycogensglycolytic pathways are less efcientruns out of fuel the rangevelocity of movementlength of forceweight armdetermine how quicklyexcapture prey within a short period or its muscle will run out of the efciently muscle force can translate into leveragemvemnt carbohydrate fuel necessary to support sprinting 3dependence on O2no excheetahVSlionlion slower but strongerteres majormuscle that pulls the O2use glycolysis for ATP pdtnhigh intensity activityO2 delivery to muscle foreleg backwardmvemnt used in runningprey captureteres major attaches not fast enough to meet ATP demands by mitochondrial metabolismtissue much closer to the shoulder joint in a cheetahshorter force arm than in the becomes hypoxicrelies on internal glycogen storesproduce lactateliondiff in MAcheetah move its foreleg fasterlion moves its foreleg with metabolic disturbances must be corrected during recovery 4fuel diversity more forceskeletons can store elastic energywhen muscle shortens glycolysis only relies on carbohydrate mitochondria generate E from some of the force that is used to stretch the connective tissuebend the bone oxidation of carbohydrates lipidsfaand aafuels for muscle actderived is storedhelp muscle stretch when muscle relaxescan generate force that directly from dietmobilized from intramuscular stores or extra muscular can be applied toward the next jumpexkangaroofunctionally replace storage depots 5rate of mobilizationmuscles w low lvl of fuels antagonistic musclesspidersuse uid mvemnthydrostatic pressure to aid in glucosefaglycerolfree aaoxidized immediately muscles consume fuels leg extensionincrease elastic storage energyif rely on hydrostatic pressure rapidlyanimals mobilize stored fuels to sustain muscle actwhen muscle act for locomotionhave limitations in rapidly moving animalsmass of elastic beginsglycogen hydrolysis begins win a fraction of a secmuscle act structuresmass of the hydrostatic uid needed to extend a legthusif legs continuesother fuel depots are mobilizedmitochondrial content reply on elastic structures they can be smallerwhich saves energy for a inuences muscle aerobic capacityoxidative phosphorylationcentral to moving animalit costs the animal metabolic energy to push hydrostatic uids the energetics of most muscles mitochondrial contentimportant determinant into the leguse extracellular uid to generate hydrostatic pressure mayof muscle aerobic capacityanimals wextensive mitochondrial reticulumcompromise the diffusion of metabolitesrespiratory gasesreply on elastic improve the efcient of O2 delivery into the cellO2 dissolves more readily storage energy allow escaping some of th
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