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Bio361-neurotransmitter release

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 361

SynapsesNeutrsmter releaseconformational changehappens to the a receptor signal transduction pathwaysincrease APfrequencymore vesicles moving to the when its being bound to a chemmsgerligandact as a signal that converts an memrelease contentquantal releasenot apparentthe amt of neutrsmter a inactive substanceA to its active formactivates Bactivates Csignal neuron releases increases in a steplike fashion w each step corresponding to a transduction cascades greatly amplify the original signal signal transduction smoothly graded fashion as would happen if neutrsmter 1molca timeamt of pathways used by a cell to convert the change in the shape of a receptor to a neutrsmter releaseda synapserelated to the frequency of APaxon complex responsetransducersdevices that convert signals from one form to terminalweak signalslow freq APfew synaptic vesicles releasing contents anotherDNAbinding domaintransactivation domain4important cmpnents strong signalshigh freq APmore synaptic vesicles releasing contentsreceiverligandbinding domain of the receptorreceiving the signal by binding to increased intracellular Ca2stronger signal for exocytosisor else bound up by the incoming chemmsger transducerligandbindingother domain win the intracellular buffersremoved from the cytoplasm by Ca2 ATPasesignal receptorundergo conformational chnge that activates a signal transduction intensitycoded by APfreqtranslated into diff in the amt of neutrsmter released by pathwayampliersignal transduction pathwayincreasing the of molec affected the neuronacetylcholineAChbiogenic amine neutrsmtersynthesized from the by the signalresponderthe longer the signal transduction cascade the greater aa cholinesynthesis occursaxon terminal in a rxncatalyzed by choline acetyl the degree of signal amplicationintracellular receptorsinside cellinteract w transferasepackaged into synaptic vesiclestored until an AP arriving axon hydrophobic chemmsgershcm interact w transmembrane receptorsligandterminal triggers its releasediffuse into the synapsebinds to receptors on the gated ion channelsinitiate a response in the target cell by chnging the ion postsynaptic cell memAcetyl CoAfrom mitochondriacombined w cholineAChpermeability of the memreceptor enzymesinduce a response by activatingCocoenzymeAsignaling btw a ligandexneutrsmterreceptormust be inacting intracellular enzymesgproteincoupled receptorssend signals to an terminated in order to be effectiveacetylcholinesterasespecic enzyme in the associated gproteininitiate a signal transduction pathwayresponse in target synapseremoves ACh from its receptorbreaking the ACh down into cholinecellafter a ligand is bound to an intracellular receptorreceptor chnge shapeacetateregulate the strength of the signal to the postsynaptic cell by regulating become activatedactivated intracellular receptoract as transcription the neutrsmtersynapsecholinetaken up by the presynaptic neuronreused to factorsregulate the transcription of target genes by binding to specic DNA form AChacetatediffuses out of the synaptic cleftspecic cellsurface receptorssequencesindecrease mRNA pdtn from the target genesome located in the used by postsynaptic cells to detect neutrsmter chnge shape once bound to the cytoplasm and only move to the nucleus once they bind to the ligandothers are in neutrsmtersignal in the target cell Nicotinic ACh receptorsin skeletal muscle the nucleusalready bound to DNAready to be activatedintracellular receptorcellsable to bind to the drugnicotineingredient of tobacco ligandgated ion 3domainseach performs specic step in signal transductionligandbinding channelACh binds to a nicotinic receptor which causes a chnge in shapedomainonce a hydrophobic ligand has diffused across the membraneit binds to opening a pore in the middle of the receptorallow ions to cross the memrapid the lbinding sitecause a conformational chnge in the receptor that activates excitatory postsynaptic potenthas relatively nonselective channelpermeable to itDNAbinding domainbinds to specic sequences responsive elementsadj to NaKCagraded potenpostsynaptic dominated by Nainux deplzatn both their target geneonly the intended target genes contain appropriate responsive the amt of neutrsmter present in the synapsetheof receptors on the element sequenceonce it bound w intrareceptortransactivation domain of the postsynaptic cell inuence the strength of signal in the target receptor interacts w other transcription factorsregulate the transcription of the cellneutrsmterincreaseresponse of the postsynaptic cell increaseall available target genesindecrease mRNA pdtnintracellular receptors bind only to their receptors get saturatedneutrsmterin the synapseresult of the balance btw the target gensnot to other genes in the genomea transactivation domainchnge in rate of neutrsmter release from the presynaptic cellthe rate of removal of the transcriptioninitiated by the binding of a ligand to its receptor set off a cascade of neutrsmter from the synapseamt of neutrsmter releaseda function of frequency events win the target cellresponse1activation of a smallof specic genes of AP presynaptic axon terminalremoval of the neutrsmter from the synapse usually coding for other transcription factors2gene pdts activate other genesdepends on1neutrsmters can simply diffuse passively out of the synapse ampliercascade of gene regulationinteraction btw activated intracellular 2surrounding cellsincluding presynaptic neur
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