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BIOL 362 Compiled Course notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 362

Cyoskeletonnetwork of cytoplasmic protein filaments of eukaryotic oCofilin binds ADP actin and accelerate disassemble cell that gives cell shape and the capacity for movementStabilizersMicrotubulesoTropomyosin binds to sides of actin filament25 nanometer diameteroCapping protein Prevents assembly and disassembly at alphabeta tubulin dimer subunitplus endLargest protein filament typeCrossLinking Actin ProteinsSpindle fibers during mitosis transportoSpectrin cross links actin filaments to ankryn proteins and Microtubule Nucleationadjacent actin filaments near the cortical membranetubulinaccessory proteins forms complex for tubulin oaactininproduce diffuse parallel arrays to allow myosin to nucleationfit between contractile bundleofimbrinvillin narrow parallel arrays microvillitubulin found at MTOCs centrosomesoFilamenDimer that maintains gellike matrix Centrioles are unique to animal cells and serve as a nucleating lamellapodiacortexsite for microtubulesIntermediate FilamentsoCentrioles determine cell centrality essential in microvilli 10nm diameterefficient in pronuclear migration efficient in asymmetric division Variable monomerSpindle Pole Bodyfungi and protestStructural support shape strengthoSpindle pole bodies are integrated nuclear plaques which connect to chromatin and may extend into cytoplasmFilament PolymerizationPlant Cortical nucleationPolymerization occurs when concentration of tubulin monomers are higher than critical concentrationoBudding off existing MT from gamma tubulinIf tubulinCritical concentration disassembly occursoSimilar MTOC as animal cell except no CENTRIOLEMicrotubule ARPs assembly regulating proteinsActin and MR are polar becauseend andendStathmin binds to tubulin units and sequesters them prevent GTP binds to beta tubulin Alphabeta dimerpolymerizationStathmin is deactivated via phosphorylation enables polymerizationHydrolysis of GTP causes curved shape of tubulin causing Microtubule Accessory Proteinspeeling off StabilizersGDP tubulin has lower affinityoXMAP215 Longer less dynamic MT Stabilizes plus end Intermediate FilamentsoMAPs Bind to sides of MTs to prevent Long alphahelical protein strand forms dimer to form coileddimerdepolymerizationpeeling offCoiled coils twist around each other and become staggered Destabilizersresulting in lateral bundling and lateral interactionsoKinesin13 Headgroups bind to MT and peel off Types Keratin vimentin neurofilaments nuclear laminoKatanin ATPase Cleaves MTRapid turnover of MT Cell Junctionsuncapping treadmill release from MTOC Zona adherensjoins intercellular actin bundlesCrosslinkersDesmosomes joins intercellular IFoMAP2 diffuse MT arrayHemidesmosome anchors IF to basal laminaoTAUdense MT arrayMOTOR PROTEINSPlus End ProteinsKinesin MTUse ATP hydrolysis to detach from MT oEB1 binds to zipper region plus end and is required for oplus end directedcargo transport along MToKIN 13 organellar movementoPrimary tips bind to MT and Secondary tips bind to primary tips Aid in binding of MT to cell cortexoKIN 5Sliding MT in mitosisACTINoKIN13 MT destabilizer10 nm diameteroKIN14Minus end directed cargo transportFactinGactin monomerDynein MTATP staggered movementMuscle contraction motility transportoFastest motor proteinActin NucleationoMinus end directed transportARP23 Branched arrays at 70 binding to minus endMyosinactinUse ATP hydrolysis to recock and bind to actinoMust require activation from activating moleculeoM1 actinactin bindingoBinds minus end and polymerizes cortical actin oM2 contractionnetwork lamellapodiaoM6minus end directed transportFormin Forms dimer to nucleate unbranched Factin oM8 plants onlyActin ARPsoM9plants onlyThymosin inhibits polymerization by competing with profilingProfilin helps formin find new monomers adding them to plus CYTOSKELETAL TARGETTED DRUGSendActin Accessory ProteinsDestabilizersoGelsolin sever filament and bind to plus end dual fx Causes twisting and mechanical stress to actin filament
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