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CHEM 235 Study Guide - Final Guide: Diethyl Ether, Waste Container, Azeotrope

Course Code
CHEM 235
Dana Zendrowski
Study Guide

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- Rheostats are used to adjust the temperature of heating mantles (thermowells) since
they have no regulating device.
- A refractometer is used to take R.I. readings (can be used to determine [solution])
Waste Disposal
Aqueous-based solution (e.g. dilute HCl, H2SO4, NaOH, NaHCO3) flushed down sinks
with a lot of water
Water-immiscible (most organic) or flammable organic solvents “Liquid organic
waste” container
- these contents have to be burned in special incinerators (no water-based
Solid organic/inorganic compounds, paper and corks that came in contact with any
chemicals, TLC plates “Solid waste” container
Broken glass, used micropipets, M.P. coverslips, capillary tubes “Glass waste”
Paper that has not come in contact with any chemicals or solvents (except water)
“Paper waste” container
Acetone – “Acetone waste only” container (recycle)
Diethyl ether
- Low-boiling
- Colourless liquid
- Characteristic odour
- Often used in extraction: excellent solvent properties and immiscible with water
EXP 1: Distillation
- Process which involves heating a substance until it vaporizes, condensing the
resulting vapours by cooling, and then collecting the condensate (distillate) in a
separate vessel (receiver)
- Similar to refluxing  condensate is returned original vessel
- Useful for separating mixture when the components have different b.p.
- Used for purifying a liquid
- At least one component must be volatile
- If two volatile liquids b.p. has to be 50˚C or more difference
- Example of azeotrope: ethanol and water
- RB flask cannot be more than 2/3 full
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