COMM 292 - Final Exam Review

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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour - Final Exam Review
Final Exam Review: Chapters 1-14
Chapter 1
Defining Organizational Behaviour
Organizational behaviour: field of study that looks at the impact that individual groups, and
structure have on behaviour within an organization
o Behaviour: what people do in an organization and how they perform
OB most often is applied to business but can go beyond the traditional work place
What Do We Mean by Organization?
Organization: a coordinated social unit that functions to continuously achieve a common
goals
o Manufacturing firms, schools, hospitals, churches, military, retail stores, the police
etc.
Business that supply 10 people or less make up 75% of the Canadian marketplace
o Small to midsized business make up 45% of Canada's GDP (up 25% in 20 years)
There are different types/sizes of organizations, but most theories are applicable to all
OB is for Everyone:
Employees are now being asked to play a more proactive role in the workplace
o The roles of managers and employees are beginning to become blurred
o Managers rely more on employees to make decisions rather than follow orders
OB is also for entrepreneurs and self-employed as they interact with others in the
marketplace
OB is relevant anywhere people come together to share/work on goals or to solve problems
The Importance of Interpersonal Skills:
Until the 1980's business schools only focused on the technical aspects of business
o Business schools have shifted to teach human behaviour and organizational
effectiveness
Quality of the employee's job and support in the work place are more important than
money
Technical skills are sufficient but not enough to strive and succeed in the workplace
o In an increasingly competitive workplace employees need intrapersonal skills
Today's Challenges in the Canadian Workplace
Organizations are made up of individual groups and the entire organizational structure
o Each level has a unique role that must be fulfilled at the workplace
o Each level is constructed/dependent on the previous level
o Each level has challenges that may affect how the levels above/below operate
Basic OB model: 1. individual level, 2. group level, 3. organization system level
Challenges at the Individual Level:
Managers and employees need to learn how to deal with others (different from themselves)
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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour - Final Exam Review
o Dimensions such as personality, perception, values, and attitudes
Individuals have different levels of job satisfaction/motivation
o This affects the how managers manage employees
The greatest issues is how to behave ethically when facing competition
Individual Differences:
People enter organizations with a unique behaviour, perception, values, and attitude
o It is difficult for an organization to change these characteristics of an employee
Job Satisfaction:
Employees are demanding satisfaction out of their jobs
o Higher satisfied employees leads to higher productivity (basic assumption)
Researchers believe employees want challenges and intrinsic rewards from their work
Job satisfaction is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover
o This costs organizations considerable amounts of money annually
Motivation:
Only 24% of Canadian employees were recognized to a great extent for work well done
Empowerment:
In many organizations employees have become associates and teammates
o Employees are becoming more a part of the business and managers and facilitating
this process
o Employees' roles within many organizations have grown
Self-managed teams instead of employees and managers have become a new trend
o Teamwork and employee responsibility are essential
Empowerment: giving employees responsibility for what they do
o Managers are beginning to learn how to give up power
o Employees are learning to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate
decisions
Behaving Ethically:
Organizations with cutbacks, expectations of increasing worker productivity suffer
consequences
o Employees cut corners, break rules, engage in questionable practices etc.
Ethics: the study of moral values and principles that guide behaviour and inform us
whether actions are right or wrong
o Ethical principles help/guide us to do the right thing
Individuals that have ethical values, and organizations that encourage them will do the right
think
Challenging at the Group Level:
People's behaviour differs when they are in a group to when they are alone
o Behaviour of a group is more than the sum total of individuals acting on their own
Organizations with more teamwork develop employees with greater intrapersonal skills
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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour - Final Exam Review
o Learning to work with people from different backgrounds also have become
important
Working with Others:
A foundation for high-quality work force includes communications, problem solving,
critical thinking, learning continuously, and the ability to work with others
o A positive attitude/behaviour and taking responsibility for actions are also key
o Team building and priority management are essential for small to mid-sized
businesses
Workforce Diversity:
Adapting to different people is a broad based challenge facing organizations
Workforce diversity: the mix of people in organizations (gender, race, age, education etc.)
o More organizations are moving towards workforce diversity
Different generations working side by side bring together different values and experiences
Workforce diversity has spread in different countries through different ways
o The increase in women in the workforce has changed the workforce diversity
o The European Union has opened up borders and allowed for more diverse
organizations
Employees don't set aside cultural values and lifestyle preferences when at work
o It is challenging for organizations to accommodate these diverse needs and lifestyles
Different employees have different preferences and organizations must find the happy
medium
Managers need to shift their philosophy to treat each employee uniquely
o They must respond to differences to ensure employee retention and productivity
o Includes diversity training and revising benefit programs (family friendly etc.)
Diversity can increase creativity and innovation in organizations
o Improves decision making by providing different perspectives on problems
o Diversity that is not well managed can lead to higher turnover and conflicts
Challenges at the Organizational Level:
The design of an organization has an impact on how effective an organization is
o Change may be in order if an organization's design in not effective
Canadian businesses now face greater competition from the global economy
o The structure of the workplace is becoming more and more challenging
The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees:
Part time or temporary employees are a growing part of the overall workforce
o Full-time/permanent jobs have been downsized by millions over the years
Some contingent employees prefer part-time/temporary to do other things (school, children
etc.)
Contingent employees don't identify with the organization or display commitment
o Temporary workers lack benefits and are also paid less
Organizations are challenged with motivating temporary employees to feel more connected
Improving Quality and Productivity:
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Document Summary

Organizational behaviour: field of study that looks at the impact that individual groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization: behaviour: what people do in an organization and how they perform. Ob most often is applied to business but can go beyond the traditional work place. Organization: a coordinated social unit that functions to continuously achieve a common goals: manufacturing firms, schools, hospitals, churches, military, retail stores, the police etc. Business that supply 10 people or less make up 75% of the canadian marketplace: small to midsized business make up 45% of canada"s gdp (up 25% in 20 years) There are different types/sizes of organizations, but most theories are applicable to all. Employees are now being asked to play a more proactive role in the workplace: the roles of managers and employees are beginning to become blurred, managers rely more on employees to make decisions rather than follow orders.

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