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COMM 292
George Broderick

Comm 292Organizational Behaviour CHAPTER 1WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Page1Organizational Behaviour OBthe field of study that looks at the impact that people have on organizations to improve effectivenessproductivityOrganizationgroup that functions to achieve a common goalBasic OB model1 Organization systems level 2 Group level 3 Individual levelChallenges at the Work Place Challenges at the Individual level o Personality perception values attitudes individual differences o Job satisfactionmotivation differs o Behaving ethically o Empowerment managers as teammates giving the lower level responsibility and the power to decide Challenges at the Group level o Team building priority management o Mix of generationsdifferent life experiencesdifferent expectations o Immigration means different ethnicity backgrounds o The challenge is to accommodate diverse groups people dont lose their cultural backgrounds habits and beliefs when they enter to a new countryworkforce o Managers need to recognize differences while not discriminating o Diversity can increase creativity and innovation Challenges at the Organizational level Organizational Citizenship Behaviour OCBdiscretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but still promotes the effective functioning of the organizationPositive organizational scholarship behaviourconcerns how organizations develop human strength foster vitality and resilience and unlock potentialo Temporary employees lack the connection as fulltime employees do o Contingent employees lack the security and stabilityo Downsizing has eliminated millions of permanent jobs o Temporary employees paid less no benefits mostly between ages 15 24o Improving quality and productivity concern for both effectiveness and efficiency o Preferred employees go beyond usual job duties such as high flexibility constructive statements helping others volunteering for extra work avoiding conflicts and showing care for companys property BBDO Canada encourages entrepreneurial spirit o Work life balance global communication makes me hard and employees are expected Page2 of longer hours workers unhappy work is interrupting personal life o Global competition lessens jobs bc employers outsource jobs to countries with lower wages o Global connection and international sales make working with people from different cultures even more importantThe Building Blocks of OB Refer to p18 Exhibit 12 o Behavioural science based on psychology social psychology sociology and anthropology o Psychologymainly on micro level individual other 3on macro conceptso Social psychology focuses on peoples influence on one another the most recent topic that received attention is changehow to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance group behaviour power and conflict o Sociology focuses on social system studies people in relation to their social environment or culture group behaviour o Anthropology study of societies cultures and environments fundamental values attitudes people to cultureThe Rigour of OB Refer to pg21 Exhibit 13 Systematic studylooking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidenceEvidencebased managementbasing decisions on best available scientific evidenceContingency Approachconsiders behaviour within the context in which it occurso Fundamental consistencies allow predictability how to act in specific settings o OB supplements intuitive opinions with a more systematic approach o Managers must be more scientific in how they think about management problems o Limits of relying on intuition are that we overestimate the accuracy of what we think or know o Depending on the media is also a trap business press tends to be dominated by fads o The goal of OB is to use evidence and research to inform your intuition and experience CHAPTER 2PERCEPTION PERSONALITY AND EMOTIONSWhat we perceive is substantially different from objective realityPerceptionprocess which individuals organizes and interpret their impressions in order to Page3 give meaning to their environmentFactors Influencing Perception The Perceiver o Interpretation is heavily influenced by the individuals personality motives interests past experiences and expectations The Target o Characteristics affect what is perceived Ex Loud vs quiet attractive vs unattractive ethnicity o Novelty motion sounds size shape background proximity The Situation o Time work setting social setting o Context which we see objects influence us to have different feelings Perceptual Errors Fundamental Attribution Errortendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when judging the behaviour of othersSelfserving biastendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and blaming for failures on external factorsSelective perception selective interpretation of what they see based on interests background and experienceAttribution Theory o When we observe atypical behaviour we tend to reason whether it is internal or external behaviour o Internal individual is responsible for the behaviour o External something outside the individual caused the behaviour o Three rules about behaviour 1 distinctiveness 2 consensus 3 consistencyDistinctiveness whether individual acts similarly across variety of situations HighSeldomexternal LowFrequentlyInternal Ex If always late then most likely he always parties and forgets to wake upConsensus compares how an individuals behaviour compares with others in the same situation If the consensus is high everyone who is faced with a similar situation behaves the same way then the attribution made is likely external Low consensusinternal attribution
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