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COMM 292
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Organizational Behavior website wwwpearsonedcalangtonChapter 1 What is Organizational Behaviordefin a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals groups and structure on behavior within organizations the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness organization a consciously coordinated social unit composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals OB is not just for organizations and companies it applies to all aspects and interactions in day to day lifeThree Levels of Analysis of OB Organizational SystemsGroup LevelIndividual LevelIndividual Challenges job satisfaction motivation empowerment ethicsempowerment giving employees responsibility for what they do managers learn to give up control employees learn to take responsibility and make decisions ethics the study to oral values or principles that guide our behavior and inform us whether actions are right or wrongGroup Challenges interpersonal skills acceptance of diversityworkforce necessities communication thinking learning working with others positive attitude ability to take responsibility for ones actions workforce diversity the mix of people in organizations in terms of gender race ethnicity disability sexual orientation age and demographic characteristics such as education and socioeconomic status challenge the accommodation of the needs of the diverse employeesOrganizational Challenges productivity effective employees putting people first global competition multiculturalismproductivity a performance measure including effectiveness and efficiencyeffectivenessthe achievement of goalsefficiencythe ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work low costsorganizational citizenship behavior OCB discretionary behavior that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization going above and beyondit is important to understand and learn the suitable way to conduct business when in foreign countriesThe ologys or Building Blocks of OBpsychology the science that attempts to measure explain and sometimes change the behavior of humanssociology the study of the social system the study of people in relation to their fellow human beingssocial psychology the influence of people on one anotheranthropology the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activitiespolitical science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environmentconsistencies behaviors that can be expected or predicted but are not written rulessystematic study the examination of behavior in order to draw conclusions based on scientific evidence about causes and effects in relationshipschallenge no two people will act exactly alike in any given situation thus the study of human behaviors is challenging and generalizations are constantly being madecontingency approach an approach taken by OB that considers behavior within the context in which it occursthis approach takes into consideration that different outcomes result from different situations and that no two situations occur exactly alikeChapter 2 Perception Personality and EmotionsPerceptionperception the process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environmentpeoples behavior is based on their perception of what reality is not on reality itselfperception varies from person to person this is based on various aspectsopersonalitypersonal characteristicsoattitudesomotivesointerestsopast experiencesoculturewe perceive other people behaviors based on our own characteristicsFactors that Influence Perception1The Situationatimebwork settingcsocial setting2The Targetanoveltybmotioncsoundsdsizeebackgroundfproximity3The Perceiverasee aboveobjects that are close to each other are often perceived as one objectoex people working in one particular department are seen as one group of peopleooften things that are not related at all are grouped together however usually the more similar things are the more they will be perceived as the same thingex all women in the work place can be perceived as being the sameattribution theory the theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behavior by an individual we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally causedinternally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the personexternally caused behavior is believed to result from outside causes1Distinctiveness a behavioral rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations2Consensus a behavioral rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way3Consistency a behavioral rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over timeinternal and external causes apply to all three above stated rules of behaviorfundamental attribution error the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior or othersselfserving bias the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external forcesselective perception peoples selective interpretation of what the see based on their interests background experience and attitudesrisk misjudgments from ambiguous situations
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