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OB Final Definitions.doc

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COMM 292
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1OB DEFINITIONSCHAPTER 1Organizational Behaviour A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals groups and structure on behaviour within organizations the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness Page 4Organization A consciously coordinated social unit composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals Page 5 Empowerment Giving employees responsibility for what they do Page 7Ethics The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong Page 8Workforce Diversity The heterogeneity of workers in organizations in terms of gender race ethnicity disability sexual preference and age as well as background characteristics such as education income and training Page 9Productivity A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency Page 11Effectiveness Achievement of goals Page 11Efficiency The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work Page 11Absenteeism Failure to report to work Page 12Turnover Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from the organization Page 12 Organizational citizenship behaviour OCB Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization Page 13 Systematic study The examination of behaviour in order to draw conclusions based on scientific evidence about causes and effects in relationships Page 18Contingency Approach Considers behaviour within the context in which it occurs Page 19Organizational commitment An employees emotional attachment to the organization resulting in identification and involvement with the organization Pg19 OB DEFINITIONS2CHAPTER 2 Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Page 34 Attribution theory When individuals observe behaviour they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused Page 37Distinctiveness Asks whether the individual does the same thing in other situations Page 38 Consensus Asks whether everyone in a similar situation acts the same way Page 38 Consistency Asks whether the individual has been acting the same way over a long period of time Page 38Fundamental attribution error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others Page 39 Selfserving bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors Page 39Selective perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests background experience and attributes Page 39Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic Page 40Contrast Effects A persons evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered Page 40 Projection Attributing ones own characteristics to other people Page 40Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs Page 40Personality The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others Page 43Personality traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behaviour Page 45A personality test that taps four characteristics andMyersBriggs Type Indicator MBTI classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types Page 45Extroversion Describes someone who is sociable talkative and assertive Page 47Agreeableness Describes someone who is goodnatured coorperative and trusting Pg 47OB DEFINITIONS
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