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Organizational Behavior Midterm Notes-2.docx

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COMM 292
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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR NOTES NTS Read Chapter Summaries at end of chapters Chapter 1 1 Organizational Behavior Is a field of study that looks at the impact that individuals groups and structure have on behavior within organizations2 Organization A consciously coordinated social unit composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals 3 Small business with less than 10 ppl make up 75 percent of Canadian organizations 4 Ethics is the study of moral values or principles that guide our behavior and inform us whether our actions are right or wrong 5 EmpowermentMangers are giving employees more responsilibity for what they do managers giving up control 6 CHALLENGES IN THE WORKPLACE Individual Level individual differences job satisfaction motivation empowerment being ethical Group Level working with others workforce diversityOrganizational Level use of temporary employees parttimers temps etc improving quality and productivity developing effective employees putting people first helping employees with worklife balance creating positive work environment global competition China USA Japan 7 Workforce DiversityThe mix of people in organizations in terms of gender race ethnicity disability sexual orientation age and demographic characteristics such as education and socioeconomic status challenges in Canada include mix of generations X Y Baby Boomers Elders 8 Productivity Performance measure including effectivenessthe achievement of goals and efficiency the ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work 9 OCB Organizational Citizenship BehaviorDiscretionary behavior that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization going above what their job duties are 10 Forces that blur work life and personal life are creation off global organizations communication technology allows to work anywhere on vacation and at home in cars etc 11 Positive Organizational Scholarship An area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential 12 To reduce Global Competition some companies merge outsource jobs hire labour in India 13 UbuntuConcept that emphasizes group wellbeing and social harmony in SOUTH AFRICA old Africans will not work for young 14 Psyychology Science that measures INDIVIDUAL behavior Social Psychology Ppls influence on each other Sociology Social system in which individuals fill the roles ppl in relationship to their social environmentculture Anthropology Study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities15 Contingency ApproachAn approach taken by OB that considers behavior within the context in which it occurs ppl behaving different times at different placesChapter 2Perception Personality and Emotions 1 Perception Process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environmentThe Perceiver Personal characteristics affect percetption attitudes personality motives interests past experiences and expectationsThe Target A targets characteristics affect what is perceived distinctiveness loudquiet people attractiveunattractive novelty motion sounds size distinguishable group relatively etcThe Situation Context of when we see objects or events2 Attribution Theoryin other situations Theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behavior by an individual we attempt to determine whether it is INTERNALLY or EXTERNALLY caused We rely on three rules about the behaviorDistinctiveness in other situations in the past Behavior rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations so like if theyre ALWAYS underperforming being late for class not answering emails goofing off etc If behavior is usually we think external attribution if not unusual we think internalConsensus in similar situations compared to OTHERS Behavioral rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way in the past Based on other people being late to class to determine internal or external Consistency in the pastBehavioral rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time Like always being late 3 Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate influence of internal factors when making judgements about others behavior Ex Manager attributes failure to poor performance of staff rather than innovative product line introduced by competitor 4 Selfserving Bias We tend to attribute successes to internal factors while putting blame on external factors5 Selective Perception Peoples selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests background experience and attitudes so like being reprimanded by things that are usually unnoticed6 The Halo Effect People drawing a general impression of individual on basis of single characteristic allowing single trait to influence overall impression of person 7 Contrast Effects Concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered ex order in an interview 8 Projection Attributing ones own characteristics to other people managers who can only observe accurate people who are alike them if they are not inaccurate judgments are made 9 Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that person belongs
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