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Midterm

# EOSC 110 Midterm 1 Learning Goals .docx

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School
University of British Columbia
Department
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course
EOSC 110
Professor
All
Semester
Fall

Description
Fragile Systems 4 1. List 5 types of energy and describe what causes them to vary. o Work: W=Fd. Work is the force applied over a distance. The magnitude of the force and the distance it moves can cause the work to vary. o Potential Energy: P = meh. Energy required to move an object against gravity. Mass and height causes potential to vary. o Kinetic Energy: K = 0e5mv Energy in motion. Varies because mass and velocity can be altered. o Sensible Heat: The heat that can be felt by a thermometer; particle motion. o Latent Heat: “Hidden” heat energy. Can either by stored or released.  Water + Heat  Steam (Stored)  Water  Ice + Heat (Released) 2. Explain how the force of gravity affects motion and energy. Gravity is a constant force that affects motion be always attracting objects to each other. It affects energy by altering how the energy is used (Potential Energy: Always accelerated towards the Earth, not anywhere else) 3. Explain (with examples) how energy conservation applies to natural disasters. Natural disasters are essentially the transfer of energy from one state to another. Earthquakes: Heat causes the Earth to create convection currents. These convection currents drive the tectonic plates into motion. When they get stuck, they store potential energy in the rocks as elastic energy. When this junction is released, energy waves in the form of kinetic energy are released into the surrounding area. 4. Describe population growth and explain why it is important for natural disasters. Population growth is crucial in the survival of natural disasters because a high number of people put a strain on infrastructure, people are less likely to be evacuated successfully (transportation corridors are all jammed) Functionality of human society is in jeopardy (too much people in distress) 5. Explain how Earth’s carrying capacity and overpopulation are related to the fate of the human race, and anticipate your role in it. The more people in distress during times of need will result in complete chaos and confusion. The strain on the infrastructure put on by a huge number of people will cause less people to be evacuated safely. Role: to be prepared for a natural disaster when it hits, prepare an emergency kit, be prepared for no help for 3 days, don’t use the phone. Earthquakes 1 1. Use concepts of stress causing strain and plastic versus brittle deformation to explain how energy is release causing earthquakes. When a stress occurs, a strain (deformation) on the Earth will occur. Elastic will hold its shape therefore holding energy. Plastic will cause the Earth to permanently deform (folding). Brittle will cause the Earth to rupture (fault lines). Brittle deformation will cause faulting, in which elastic deformation will build up pressure as the plates move together. When this potential energy is released, a earthquake will happen. 2. Recognize visual evidence of tectonic forces in rocks and landscapes (e.g. fault types, topography) Convergent: Two plates come together. Denser, older, colder plate subducts underneath. (Usually the oceanic plate). If two continental plates converge, Fold Mountains will develop. (Reverse Fault; Compression) Divergent: Called a Rift Valley on land. Plates move away from each other. Magma rises and new land is created, or ocean in a rift valley. (Normal Fault; Tension) Transform: Two plates are sliding side-by-side-past each other because of a sheer force. (90-degree angle) 3. Recognize an association between seismic and volcanic events at plate margins. Usually at a subduction zone, volcanoes will form in-land. This is because the water that is dragged underneath by the subducting plate wants to escape; it has nowhere to go but up, creating volcanoes. 4. Distinguish between oceanic crust, continental crust, lithosphere and plates. o Oceanic Crust: Very thin, but dense layer of basalt. o Continental Crust: Thick, but buoyant layer of granite. o Lithosphere: The layer where all the plates move on. Followed by the Asthenosphere and the Mesosphere. o Plates interact with each other at the outmost edges. Young, hot plates will rise above a cold, old plate. 5. Explain the global distribution of earthquakes (i.e. rare, large and frequent mall quakes) in terms of tectonic plate interactions and the forces that drive them. Rare, large earthquakes are usually seen around the ring of fire. A biggest earthquakes of expected at convergent margins (mega thrust), followed by transform then divergent. Ridge Push forces two plates away from each other, and Slab Pull forces plates to be driven into the Earth (both caused by gravity) Earthquakes 2 1. Describe how the Earth builds, stores, and releases energy in earthquakes. As plates interact, they store potential elastic energy between them. A sudden change in the orientation of the plates will cause this potential energy to be changed into kinetic energy that radiated outwards from the focus in a variety of different types of waves. 2. Describe how an earthquake moves through the Earth, comparing the different kinds of waves. An earthquake creates waves that move through the Earth: o Body Waves (Fast)  Primary Waves (Slinky motion; travels through solids and liquids)  Secondary Waves (Sheering motion: travels only through solids) o Surface Waves (Slow, but destructive)  Love Waves (Sheering Motion; travel on the s
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