DA EOSC 114 Learning Goals Fragile Systems

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Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Leah May Ver

Ch.1 Learning Goals 1. Explain what density is - An object’s density is its mass divided by its volume, the amount of and how it relates to space it occupies stratification - Stratification refers to the fact that less dense materials will float on top of denser materials 2. Explain why disaster If a regular graph is used, it is off-scale and becomes an exponential scales are based on the curve. If it is logarithmic, the graph is linear, easier to read, and more Order-of-Magnitude accurate concept, and interpret graphs with logarithmic scales 3. Relate natural disaster - The more intense a natural disaster, the less frequently it occurs. risk and intensity to - The return period is the average number of years between frequency, return period, disasters of the same magnitude (M), calculated by dividing the time and consequences (costs) span of the data by the number of disasters of same magnitude 4. Explain how some - Diffuse solar radiation causes heating of air and the ocean, which recent disasters were evaporates water and concentrated into wind circulation, causing associated with the hurricanes concentration or dilution of energy - Concentrated energy such as the movement of tectonic plates gradually grinding against one another will eventually cause release in the form of earthquakes 5. Compare tectonic, rock, - The tectonic cycle is the creation, movement, and destruction of hydrologic, and tectonic plates. Once cycle can last more than 200 million years biogeochemical cycles - The rock cycle is the recycling of three major groups of rocks, driven by the Earth’s internal heat and the energy from the Sun - The hydrologic cycle is the cycling of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, to continents and islands, and back again to the oceans. It is driven by solar energy. - A biochemical cycle is the transfer of elements through the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. It is intimately related to the other 3 cycles 6. List the 1 and 2 most Earth core: iron, nickel common elements in the Earth crust: oxygen, silicon earth, ocean, and Ocean: oxygen, hydrogen atmosphere Atmosphere: nitrogen, oxygen 7. Describe how viscosity - Viscosity is a measure of how much fluids resist flow (changing and compressibility relate their shape). The more viscosity a fluid has, the more force must be to the phrase of matter applied to change its shape. Viscosity depends on temperature and the chemical structure of the fluid - Compressibility is how much a material can be squeezed or expanded, resulting in a change of density Fluidity Compressibility Solid No No Liquid Yes No Gas Yes Yes 8. Be able to diagnose the - Strain is the change in shape of size of a solid object. It comes in type of strain by the way a two types, elastic and plastic strain material deforms 1. Elastic is temporary. Once the strain is removed, the object will return to its original shape. 2. Plastic strain is permanent. It comes in two categories, ductile or brittle. Ductile means “very plastic”, while brittle means that the object will fracture instead of bending 9. Explain how gravity Gravity affects potential energy, and the greater the potential energy, affects motion and energy the faster it will fall later when it is converted to kinetic energy. This relates
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