EOSC 114 Final Notes Impact.docx

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Brett Gilley

EOSC 114 Slide Notes Final 05042013 170600Impactlecture1The principles of Stratigraphy Nicholas Steno Late 1600sSuperposition in layered strata sedimentary rocks or lava flows whats on top is youngestOriginal Horizontality If its tilted or folded is was originally flatCross cutting relationships James Hutton Late 1700sUnconformitya period of non deposition or active erosionPrinciple of faunal successionWilliam Smith 1799Fossils succeed each other vertically in a specific reliable order that can be identified over wide horizontal distancesStrata of like age can be dated and correlated by the fossils they containOnly works because species have changed through time evolvedThe amount of time a species existsa fossil range o Range starts at evolution and ends at extinctionWhat are he best fossil species for biostratigrahpyShort rangehigher resolutionCommonLived in environments where fossilization is likely to occurPresent in many different environmentsExample commonly used fossils in the MesozoicAmmonitesSubdividing time and correlating using fossils in this waybiostratigraphyThe geological time scaleDividing the 46 billion years of earths history into time periodsMany of these divisions base on extinction events Precambrian is 87 of earths historyThe base of new geological time periodsgroups of periods defined on the radiation of new speciesWhat is a mass extinction eventAt least 30 of species lostBroad range of ecosystemsShortsuddenHow many mass extinctionsAtleast 5 in the Phanerozoic o CertaceousPaleogene o Late Triassic o PermoTriassiclargest extinction event permits evolution of dinosaurs o Late Denovian o Late OrdovicianWhat causes mass extinctionsBiologically based o Competition o Predation o PathogensPhysical Earth Based o Changes in continental configuration o Changes in climateocean cyclicitysea level o The greater the landmass the lower the biodiversity o AtmosphericVolcanism o Greenhousecold house effectsExtraterrestrial based o AsteroidsCombination of many factorsCauses of the PermoTriassic extinctionContinental configurationdrop in diversitySea level fallless ocean ridge activityOceanic stagnationanoxiaPossible extra terrestrial impactsClimate change o Siberian trapsMassive volcanic activity 23 million km3 basaltic lava o CO2 released causes greenhouse warming o Raises global temp 5C o Warms oceansmelts gas
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