EOSC114FinalExam Notes (1).docx

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Christopher Erickson

EOSC 114Final Review NotesUnit 1 A Fragile System Explain what density ishow it relates to stratification 3o Densitymassvolume how much mass fits into a space Unit kgm 3 o Stratificationlessdense materials float on top of denser materialsThis is found in the atmosphere the ocean the earth etc Explain why disaster scales are based on the OrderofMagnitude concept and interpret graphs with logarithmic scales o Without using a log scale sometimes a graph will be too large o Orders of magnitude are powers of 10a logarithmic graph steps by powers of 10 Converting an exponential curve into a logarithmic graph will give a linear graph o Many disaster scales use powers of 10 Richter Fujita Torino Beaufort etcRelate naturaldisaster riskintensity to frequency return period and consequences costs o Riskprobability severitycost of damage human liveso Intensity is inversely proportional to frequencyo Return periodaverage number of years between disaster events of the same magnitudeRP Mtime span of data of cases of magnitude MExplain how some recent disasters were associated with concentration or dilution of energy o Time scales for energy to build up and releaseConcentration of energy Dilution of energy Earthquakes yearsminutesTsunami minuteshoursVolcanoes decadesdaysFloods hoursdaysHurricanes monthsdaysStorms hoursminutesRogue waves hourssecondsGet the disaster info you need from reliable sources Compare tectonic rock hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles Tectonic Cycle o Involves the creationmovementdestruction of plates o One cycle can last more than 200 million years o Types of plate boundariesDivergent two plates move awayForms large underwater midocean ridgesRifts formed through seafloor spreading Convergent two plates collideSubduction zone one plate moves beneath another usually ocean and continentalAt 100120 km melts and releases H2O and CO2hot enough to cause lower crust to meltmagma moves upreaches surfaceeruptsTransform boundaryMovement along a transform faultmost are beneath oceans but some are on continentsRock Cycle o Rock aggregate of one or more minerals Mineral naturally occurring crystalline substance w specific elemental composition o Rock Cycle recycling of three major groups of rockCrystallization of molten rockigneous rock beneathon Earths SurfaceWeatheringsedimentSedimentis transported by windwaterice to depositional sitesBuriedlithificationsedimentary rockChemically active fluidsheatpressure cause metamorphic rock to be formedEventually temp high enoughmeltrestartWater Cycle o Cycling of water from oceansatmospherecontinentsback again o Driven by solar energy o Residence time estimated avg time a drop of water spends in any part of the cycleOnly a tiny fraction of earths water is active at a certain timeoften storedOnly 3 of all water important for lifegroundwaterBiogeochemical cycles o Cycling of an elementelements through atmospherelithospherehydrospherebiosphereRelated to the other cyclesTectonic provides watergas heatenergy Rock and hydrological transfer and store Elements and chemicals are transferred via storage compartmentsreservoirsWhen a biogeochem cycle is understood the rate of transfer flux among all components is knownList the 1st and 2nd most common elements in the earth ocean and atmosphereElements Earth Crust Ocean Atmosphere st1 most common Fe O O N nd2 most common O Si H O rd3 most common Ni Al Cl Ar Describe how viscosity and compressibility relate to the phase of matter o Fluids Easily flow change shape easilygases liquids o Viscosity measure of how much fluids resist flowing or changing their shapeGreater viscosity more resistance Depends on temperaturechemical structure o Compressibility ability to be squeezedexpanded Results in a change in density because of volume change o Phases of matterSolids Not fluid not very compressible Liquids Very fluid not very compressibleGases Very fluid very compressible Be able to diagnose the type of strain by the way a material deforms o Strain Change in shape or size of a solid object deformationElastic Ability to change shape when forced but spring back to original shape when force liftedPlastic Ability to permanently change shape or deform when forced o Ductilevery plastic Brittlenot very plastic fractures instead of bending Explain how gravity affects motion and energy list the 5 types of energy and describe what causes them to vary Force FA pushpull Unit Newton1 kgms2FmaA 15 kmh breeze1 N Gravity gForce that attracts matter2 G98 msgravitational acceleration Types of Energy Work WWorkforce x distance inJoules Potential EnergyMassgravityheight distance against pull of gravity2Kinetic Energy05 m V Sensible Heat QHeat we can feel H Qm C T Ho Cspecific heat capacity
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