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EOSC 114 Study Notes.docx

31 Pages

Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course Code
EOSC 114

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EOSC 114Final Review Notes Get As or die trying Jason KimUnit 1 A Fragile SystemExplain what density ishow it relates to stratification3oDensitymassvolume how much mass fits into a space Unit kgm 3oStratificationlessdense materials float on top of denser materialsThis is found in the atmosphere the ocean the earth etc Explain why disaster scales are based on the OrderofMagnitude concept and interpret graphs with logarithmic scalesoWithout using a log scale sometimes a graph will be too largeoOrders of magnitude are powers of 10a logarithmic graph steps by powers of 10 Converting an exponential curve into a logarithmic graph will give a linear graphoMany disaster scales use powers of 10 Richter Fujita Torino Beaufort etcRelate naturaldisaster riskintensity to frequency return period and consequences costsoRiskprobability severitycost of damage human lives oIntensity is inversely proportional to frequency oReturn periodaverage number of years between disaster events of the same magnitudeRP Mtime span of data of cases of magnitude MExplain how some recent disasters were associated with concentration or dilution of energyoTime scales for energy to build up and releaseConcentration of energyDilution of energyEarthquakes yearsminutesTsunami minuteshoursVolcanoes decadesdaysFloods hoursdaysHurricanes monthsdaysStorms hoursminutesRogue waves hourssecondsGet the disaster info you need from reliable sources Compare tectonic rock hydrologic and biogeochemical cyclesTectonic CycleoInvolves the creationmovementdestruction of platesoOne cycle can last more than 200 million yearsoTypes of plate boundariesDivergent two plates move awayForms large underwater midocean ridgesRifts formed through seafloor spreading Convergent two plates collideSubduction zone one plate moves beneath another usually ocean and continentalAt 100120 km melts and releases H2O and CO2hot enough to cause lower crust to meltmagma moves upreaches surfaceeruptsTransform boundaryMovement along a transform faultmost are beneath oceans but some are on continentsRock CycleoRock aggregate of one or more minerals Mineral naturally occurring crystalline substance w specific elemental compositionoRock Cycle recycling of three major groups of rockCrystallization of molten rockigneous rock beneathon Earths SurfaceWeatheringsedimentSedimentis transported by windwaterice to depositional sitesBuriedlithificationsedimentary rockChemically active fluidsheatpressure cause metamorphic rock to be formedEventually temp high enoughmeltrestartWater CycleoCycling of water from oceansatmospherecontinentsback againoDriven by solar energyoResidence time estimated avg time a drop of water spends in any part of the cycleOnly a tiny fraction of earths water is active at a certain timeoften storedOnly 3 of all water important for lifegroundwater Biogeochemical cyclesoCycling of an elementelements through atmospherelithospherehydrospherebiosphereRelated to the other cyclesTectonic provides watergas heatenergy Rock and hydrological transfer and store Elements and chemicals are transferred via storage compartmentsreservoirsWhen a biogeochem cycle is understood the rate of transfer flux among all components is knownList the 1st and 2nd most common elements in the earth ocean and atmosphereElementsEarthCrustOceanAtmospherest1 most FeOONcommonnd2 most OSiHOcommonrd3 most NiAlClArcommonDescribe how viscosity and compressibility relate to the phase of matteroFluids Easily flow change shape easilygases liquidsoViscosity measure of how much fluids resist flowing or changing their shapeGreater viscosity more resistance Depends on temperaturechemical structureoCompressibility ability to be squeezedexpanded Results in a change in density because of volume changeoPhases of matterSolids Not fluid not very compressible Liquids Very fluid not very compressibleGases Very fluid very compressible Be able to diagnose the type of strain by the way a material deformsoStrain Change in shape or size of a solid object deformationElastic Ability to change shape when forced but spring back to original shape when force liftedPlastic Ability to permanently change shape or deform when forcedoDuctilevery plastic Brittlenot very plastic fractures instead of bending
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