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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114

EOSC 118Final Review NotesUnit 1 A Fragile SystemExplain what density ishow it relates to stratification3oDensitymassvolume how much mass fits into a space Unit kgm 3oStratificationlessdense materials float on top of denser materialsThis is found in the atmosphere the ocean the earth etc Explain why disaster scales are based on the OrderofMagnitude concept and interpret graphs with logarithmic scalesoWithout using a log scale sometimes a graph will be too largeoOrders of magnitude are powers of 10a logarithmic graph steps by powers of 10 Converting an exponential curve into a logarithmic graph will give a linear graphoMany disaster scales use powers of 10 Richter Fujita Torino Beaufort etcRelate naturaldisaster riskintensity to frequency return period and consequences costsoRiskprobability severitycost of damage human lives oIntensity is inversely proportional to frequency oReturn periodaverage number of years between disaster events of the same magnitudeRP Mtime span of data of cases of magnitude MExplain how some recent disasters were associated with concentration or dilution of energyoTime scales for energy to build up and releaseConcentration of energyDilution of energyEarthquakes yearsminutesTsunami minuteshoursVolcanoes decadesdaysFloods hoursdaysHurricanes monthsdaysStorms hoursminutesRogue waves hourssecondsGet the disaster info you need from reliable sources Compare tectonic rock hydrologic and biogeochemical cyclesTectonic CycleoInvolves the creationmovementdestruction of platesoOne cycle can last more than 200 million yearsoTypes of plate boundariesDivergent two plates move awayForms large underwater midocean ridgesRifts formed through seafloor spreading Convergent two plates collideSubduction zone one plate moves beneath another usually ocean and continentalAt 100120 km melts and releases H2O and CO2hot enough to cause lower crust to meltmagma moves upreaches surfaceeruptsTransform boundaryMovement along a transform faultmost are beneath oceans but some are on continentsRock CycleoRock aggregate of one or more minerals Mineral naturally occurring crystalline substance w specific elemental compositionoRock Cycle recycling of three major groups of rockCrystallization of molten rockigneous rock beneathon Earths SurfaceWeatheringsedimentSedimentis transported by windwaterice to depositional sitesBuriedlithificationsedimentary rockChemically active fluidsheatpressure cause metamorphic rock to be formedEventually temp high enoughmeltrestartWater CycleoCycling of water from oceansatmospherecontinentsback againoDriven by solar energyoResidence time estimated avg time a drop of water spends in any part of the cycleOnly a tiny fraction of earths water is active at a certain timeoften storedOnly 3 of all water important for lifegroundwater Biogeochemical cyclesoCycling of an elementelements through atmospherelithospherehydrospherebiosphereRelated to the other cyclesTectonic provides watergas heatenergy Rock and hydrological transfer and store Elements and chemicals are transferred via storage compartmentsreservoirsWhen a biogeochem cycle is understood the rate of transfer flux among all components is knownList the 1st and 2nd most common elements in the earth ocean and atmosphere
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