eosc review questions

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 116
Stuart Sutherland

English 112 Key Concepts & Questions for Review Chapter 1 (genre) 1. What is genre (how does Giltrow define it?) and how is it related to cultural situations? Genre has been reconceptualized as involving situation and form, and thus requires a type of communication, but also the situation that the communication serves (traditionally defined in terms of form and used for categorization). Genres help us hear/distinguish/recognize cultural situations (occasions in our culture) 2. How do cultural situations imprint language? Recognizing cultural situations (and the ways people typically respond to them) has allowed the situations to leave its mark on English, pressing into the general shape of language features (word patterns, sentence construction) that distinguish certain ones into particular contexts/circumstances. 3. Identify 3 examples of cultural situations that have specific kinds of writing associated with them. What are the features of these genres? Ex 1: Texting  emoticons, abbreviations and acronyms Ex 2: For Sale advertisements  incomplete sentnces, abbreviations, adjectives, etc Ex 3: Academic writing  signposts, only necessary adjectives, uncommon jargon 4. What are the salient (distinguishing) features of the research genres? Identify as many characteristics as you can think of, and describe their purpose. (Flip through Academic Reading if you need to find some examples). Research genres use writing that is concise and clear (as opposed to vague or wordy), is logical, uses signposts for direction, and uses terminology related to (and often only found in) the specific subject or field of concern. Chapter 3 (citation/states of knowledge) 1. What is citation? Is it unique to scholarly writing? Identify several ways in which an academic paper might cite a source. Citation is ―the customary practice of attributing words, phrases, or statements to another speaker,‖ and it is used in both scholarly and nonscholarly writing, as well as everyday conversations and situations. Citation in scholarly discourse differs from that of other contexts as it uses reporting expressions, super-/sub- scripts, footnotes, dates, and the repetition of words and ideas of others. 2. What are reporting expressions? Reporting expressions are statements/phrases/expressions that report sources of information (the writer‘s name, the title of work, the dat of publication, the reporting verb). Can be in the form of double reporting, which accounts for the source‘s summarizing activity (reports information used by their source). 3. Why do scholars use citation? Scholars use citation to clarify the existing state of knowledge surrounding the subject in question, as developed by other academics in the field, as well as to set out the knowledge deficit that they wish to fulfill by expanding further on this subject. 4. Define state of knowledge and knowledge deficit. State of knowledge is the writer‘s estimate of the limits of established knowledge of a specific subject (as well as the conditions this knowledge was produced under, and the positions from which statements issue) Knowledge Deficit is the gap in established knowledge surrounding a subject: what hasn‘t been covered, what needs to be said, any errors in what is said to be true. This is what justifies the present research project. Chapter 4 (summaries) 1. What is a summary? A summary is a compression (with or without rearrangement) of what another speaker has said or written. 2. What are some of the characteristics of a summary? A summary compiles the gist of the work in question, and arranges the material to be compiled in terms of levels of generality and details (abstract and concrete references). 3. How do reporting expressions help to identify a summarizer's position? Reporting expressions allow the characterization of the action of the original (as an explanation, argument, an analysis, observations, or a review), which shows the summarizer‘s position in relation to the writer whose ideas they are representing. 4. What is reporting reporting? (Sometimes called double reporting). What is its value to scholarly conversation? Double reporting is the citing or others‘ citations, or reporting information used by their source, or the account for the source‘s summarizing activity. In scholarly discourse, double reporting defines the summarizer‘s position, and traces the history of a statement (through various pieces of writing). Chapter 5 (summaries cont'd) 1. Pretend you are explaining to a student who hasn't yet taken English 112 how to summarize a passage that remains at "high levels of generalities" (i.e. consists mostly of abstractions). (Remember to define abstraction). An abstraction is an idea or concept, and a high-level passage uses many of these abstractions, with little to no smaller details or examples. In order to summarize a piece with mostly ‗high levels of generalities‘ in a way that easier to understand, providing said lower-level examples will help readers measure their understanding of the passage (by showing the summarizer‘s position and perspective on the material summarized. 2. Explain how to summarize a passage that contains mostly lower-level details. In order to summarize a lower-level passage, one should provide abstractions to group the many details and examples, to organize into a more concise way. This also will show the summarizer‘s position (his/her perspective on the material being summarized). 3. What is narrative, and why can it be especially difficult to summarize? A narrative is a sequence of events organized chronologically into a story. Narratives can be especially difficult to summarize because they tend not to contain ‗levels of generality‘ which explain the conditions in the story. Chapter 6 (orchestrating voices) 1. What is meant by the phrase orchestrating voices? Arranging by way of direct or indirect reported speech, a dialogue of two or more speakers/voices (often of other research publication) 2. What special arrangements do you need to make to introduce non-scholarly voices into an academic paper? To introduce the new arrival of non-scholarly voices into an academic paper, it can be useful to include explanations of who their intended audience(s) was/were or the parts that they overlooked (eg. ―While x‘s claims overlook the uncertainty of evidence in this area, they do represent/speak to widley held interest in/concerns about..‖) Chapter 7 (definitions) 1. Why are definitions important characteristics of research papers? What work do they do? Definitions are an important characteristics of research papers since they bring important terms into focus for readers who need clarification. They negotiate the space between academic writers and their main readers (other researchers/scholars). 2. Why do we need to go further than a dictionary when defining a term for an academic paper? Since dictionaries only describe uses of words rather than establish definitions, and also are more general, it is necessary to provide examples. No dictionary can report all the possible communities of speakers and the tacit/implied agreements amonst them ―as to the appropriate use of certain words‖ 3. What is an appositive (apposition)? List the mechanical techniques for introducing an apposition. An apposition/appositive is a short expression that explains and/or summarizes something that may be unfamiliar to the reader(s). Appositives are a relatively unobtrusive way of activating an abstraction or specialized term, as they quickly enrich established understandings or improve uncertain ones. To introduce an appositive, a colon, comma, parentheses, or footnotes can be used. 4. Define formal definition. How would you develop a formal definition? (Select one of the abstractions we've looked at to date as an example). Formal definitions are those that consist of a single sentence in which the term being defined is the subject, and provides a distinguishing characteristic of the term. To develop a formal definition, provide the term to be defined, the general class which it belongs to, and a distinctive feature that distinguishes it from others of its type. 5. Define sustained definition. Again, what techniques could you use to develop a sustained definition? (Select one of the abstractions we've looked at to date as an example). Sustained defintions expand formal definitions by locating the phenomenon amongst other, related phenomena in the world. 6. Giltrow describes knowledge as "the product of social activities" (85). This is reflected in the ways abstractions are developed and used in different disciplines. Briefly explain the social profile of abstractions, as this subject is discussed in the textbook. ―Different groups engages in different kinds of research-and-writing activities (or different discourse communities) develop, through their association and communal purposes, different techniques for making and representing knowledge.‖ Chapters 9 & 10: Scholarly Styles 1. What is genre violation and how is it connected to common sense and uncommon sense? Genre violation is the misapplication of the norms, expectations, or needs regarding communication in one situation to those of another situation. It can occur in writing or in reading. The more precise and highly defined a genre‘s features/situations are, the more distinctive the language will be, and the more inscrutable to people unfamiliar with those situations. Genre violation occurs when those with only common sense misinterpret academic writing which references uncommon sense. 2. Why does scholarly expression often use big noun phrases? In order keep scholarly writing concise, noun phrases are used, since they
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