Quiz 4 Review.docx

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Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 118
David Turner

Quiz 4 Review COLLAPSE Hi all, Great work on Quiz 4 – the average was ~16 / 20! Below is a selection of commonly misanswered questions on the quiz that warrant further discussion and/or clarification. We hope this helps you with your comprehension of the course material and for studying towards our upcoming final exam (more details to be posted soon)!Also, don't forget that we'll only be using the top 3 of 4 quiz marks in the calculation of your final grade for the course. -Dave, Jan, Dana & Martyn Here they are by category: Artisanal and Small Scale Mining: Q: What are two of the largest obstacles towards minimizing environmental damage and health effects of artisanal and small-scale mining around the world? A: Lack of education prevents miners to see the consequences and danger of mining and processing (e.g., use of mercury) whereas lack of money prevents them from being able to invest in less damaging mining & processing methods, and to reclaim the land. Q: What was one of the motivating factors that made people interested in the concept of fair trade gemstones and precious metals? A: Publicizing the Kimberley Process and conflict gemstones was one of the major factors. Silver: Q: Native silver is rarely pure. What trace elements does it commonly contain? A: Silver (Ag) commonly contains gold (Au) (forming alloy called electrum), and sometimes mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb). Copper Q: What are some early uses for the metal copper? A: The early uses of copper in tools and jewels are well known; however, copper coins are known from relatively modern era, as well as copper electric wiring. Q: What is the correct order of processing copper ore? A: The first three steps (Blasting > Crushing > Milling) are logical and almost nobody made a mistake there. The next three steps were a bit tricky, because it was necessary to understand what the individual steps mean (Chemical Flotation > Smelting > Refining by Electroplating): During chemical flotation, the ore minerals are separated from the rest of the milled rock, using their hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties in a water bath improved with chemicals specific for each ore type. During smelting, metal is produced from the ore. During refining by electroplating, the metal purity is refined. Social and Environmental Impacts: Q:At which phase(s) of mineral resource development is it absolutely vital to conduct environmental assessment? A:Although environmental study is essential throughout mineral resource development, it does not necessarily take place in early stages such as exploration or discovery; it is part of the development of the deposit. During production, environmental criteria outlined in the environmental study are monitored. And, of course, after the deposit is closed and reclaimed, additional environmental studies are done to check whether all environmental risks identified by the first study in the development stage were appropriately controlled. Q: What is one of the most common and prominent issues facing mining operations around the world? A: Though each mine site will have its own specific set of challenges to overcome, such as corrupt government, endangered species, heavy metals, remote locations, fish bearing rivers, coal bed methane, etc… one that is common to most mine sites is weathering if sulfide bearing minerals (e.g., pyrite) are at the surface of the earth. Initially, they were locked up in the rocks but through the process of mining and milling they became very fine particles and therefore very reactive. The consequence of this is that they are able to produce a large amount of acid, which can have a significant impact on the acidity of surface waters and therefore the environmental health of the area. Gold: Large-scale mining: Q: Of the following methods of mining, which is most cost intensive? Cost of mining is dependent on many factors, but the most important are: 1) Price of the commodity 2) Cost of getting to the ore and equipment needed (technique chosen: surface or und
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