Lesson Objectives: 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 326
Louise Longridge

EOSC 326 Final Exam Study GuideModule CLesson 10 Learning Objectives 1 Describe why organisms have different potential for preservation Hard body parts are more likely to be preserved than soft body parts animals with a skeleton or shell is more likely to be preserved Animals that stay in one place are more likely to be preserved than mobile animals And animals that live on soft muddy substrates are more likely to be preserved than animals that live on hard rocky substrates2 Compare and contrast body and trace fossils Body fossils are preservations of actual animal body parts whereas trace fossils are tracks and evidence left behind by animals such as footprints fecal matter and burrows3 Compare and contrast the different methods of fossil preservation Direct preservation is the fossilization of body parts without any chemical or physical changes except for the removal of soft tissueIndirect preservation 1 CarbonizationCommon in fish insects and plants Fossils are preserved as thin films of carbon First the material is buried then a chemical reaction occurs where water transforms the material into carbon finally hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen are driven off as gases 2 PetrificationCommon in bones and some groups of plants and shells Material is first buried water percolates through pore spaces and a supersaturated solution of calcium carbonate or silica precipitates minerals in the pore spaces Spaces get completely filled up and the material becomes a solid rock 3 Dissolution and replacementCommon in shells and other species like trilobites Material is buried original material dissolves and is replaced by sediments or other materials like calcite4 Define and identify an external mold a cast and an internal mold 1 External moldPreserves the external features a shell 2 Internal moldPreserves the internal features of a shell 3 CastReplica of the original shell5 List and define the different modes of life that have been exploited by marine organisms over time 1 Pelagic organismsMarine animals that live up in the water column 1 Nektonic groups can move about freely and are not dependent on currents Size ranges from microscopic to a few meters long 2 Planktonic groups are microscopic and float around in the water column 2 Benthic organismsMarine animals that live on the ocean floor 1 InfaunalAnimals that live within the substrate 1 BurrowersAnimals that burrow into muddy substrates like clams 2 BorersAnimals that bore into hard rock substrates like a boring bivalve 2 EpifaunalAnimals that live on the substrate 1 CementingSessile animals do not move around 2 VagrantAnimals that move around on the substrate
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