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Throughout this paper is my understanding of what I have learned in class chapters 1-4, expressing my understanding and opinions. Economics is the study of how we deal with scarce resources. Microeconomics specially deals with business in the home country exclusively. This type of economics affects small businesses in the home country only. On the other hand, macroeconomics concerns our national welfare concerning trade and international business.
I believe that many things affect our economy on a microeconomics level. Things such as our understanding of our country in reflection to the world are very important. That is why we study ourselves before we study the macroeconomic principle of the world. Understanding ourselves is what microeconomics teaches us. Working from the inside out. The world is a place where there are differences in our wants and what we get. That is what makes items scarce. That is what positive economics is. Positive economics deals with what is and what we have. The other type of economics is called normative statements. This deals with what we should receive instead of what is and deserved to some extent. It's our scarce resources that determine our allocation of resources and how we use our resources and time. This is where opportunity costs come in, giving up something to do something. A successful business or country never ignores opportunity costs. We must ensure that we have a comparative advantage instead of the absolute advantage. Our resources must be used to achieve maximum output. Comparative is met when we have fewer opportunity costs to make some certain products than the other person or entity.
My initial understanding was scarcity was oil potentially running out, but we have so much of it that you can always find more with techniques such as fracking. Now it's obvious to me, one of our most scarce resources is time. You cannot avoid the 8,760 hours in a year. I understand that people have unlimited wants but limited resources. Everything has a cost and we must make a choice as we don't have unlimited farms, factories workers, etc. scarcity forces choices and this ties in with opportunity cost, for every gun made, a theft from the hungry is made. The opportunity cost not being used to feed the poor, but to make guns. And I find it easy to understand no one can have everything choices must be made on benefits. If I'm going to school, imp giving up making cash, as I'm giving up money for an education, I value education more. Scarcity is also related to the invisible hand. As it's an achievement that leads free markets and capitalism through competition for scarce resources.
My understanding of the invisible hand is a person neither intends to promote public interest and does not know how much he is promoting it. Only intending on his own gain. Without being his intention a person can be lead by the invisible hand to do good for society by pursuing one's own self-interest. Going into equity and efficiency the invisible hand does ensure both equity and efficiency. People work in their selfish ways to maximize profit while also contributing to the economy as a whole. It can also be argued that as the invisible hand wants to ensure efficiency, it cannot guarantee efficiency, because it can fail to produce an efficient allocation of resources, which in turn lead to a market failure. It can also be argued that it can't guarantee equity because not everyone gets a fair price. The way I like to remember efficiency is with a real-life example, like a reduction in the number of workers needed to produce a particular good for a particular amount. Equity refers to the ownership interest in an asset, for example, if a person owns a house with a market value of $800,000 and owes $100,000 on the mortgage leaving a $700,000 equity in the home.
It can be predicted that if the price of beef increases - ceteris paribus-the quantity of beef demanded by buys will decrease. In other words, if the price of beef increases, then the quantity of beef increases, then the quantity of beef demanded will decrease because all things have to be equal. In-class lecture thought me all other things remaining the same. Economists use ceteris paribus to determine the effect of a factor when all other factors have been held the same and helps simplify the study and get a more refined data set.
Economists deal with many issues that pertain to assuring that both a countries domestic output is efficient and that there is an effective trade balance. This means that there are a balance and limit on the amount of imports. Also, this means home production must be able to meet export demands. There are many factors that affect the production of goods and their effect on shifting the production possibilities frontier. This involves evaluating every detail including knowing the products and any close substitutes and compliments. It also involves knowing how an action or other external force will affect demand. This is called price elasticity; Substitutes are products that can replace any given product or service. An example of this would be Coke and Pepsi. The presence of substitutes affects price elasticity because if there are other options, then any change to the price or quality of the product will cause a shift of the demand curve. O course, price is a huge reason why the demand for a product decreases or increases yet it doesn't shift the curve because of the price only. This price change will cause a domino effect that will end with the shifting of the demand curve because it will cause an increase or decrease in demand of the substitute good if the price change is either lower or higher respectively. This price change serves as a catalyst that will change people's desire to spend more money on a more expensive product and that will instead choose to buy the substitute good for cheaper or buy more of the desired product. The change in the price of actual products will not shift the demand curve yet the change of the price of substitutes will because it serves to change people's purchasing behavior. On the other hand, compliments serve to boost demand when there is a decrease in price. The use of complementary goods is dependent upon another product. An example of this would be hot dogs and buns. If the price of hotdogs decreases then, conversely, the demand for hot dog buns will increase because of this change in price. In this scenario, the decrease in price will cause a positive shift in the demand curve because of people's desire and willingness to buy more buns. This is an example of a demand shifter. There are a few other demand shifters. The shifters of the demand curve are changes in expectations, disposable income, price of substitute goods and complements, tastes and preferences, and population size and composition. Changes in income affect the demand curve because if income is lower then people tend to save any extra income instead of wasting it. Disposable income is minimized and spending is lower. This also causes people to see a perceived value of things and distinguishing between what is necessary and what is a relative luxury. The lower the income, the higher the saving and avoidance to spend. An example of this would be if someone needs to buy some medication and it is relatively expensive, that doesn't mean that someone won't buy the medication just because it is expensive. It is necessary. Other factors that contribute to spending and demand are having a price ceiling and price floor. Having a price ceiling is a limit on the price of the product this is a government-imposed idea that is meant to protect consumers from unfair pricing and other conditions that may be malicious or obscure. This affects demand because if there is a price ceiling there is a limit on profit on a unit-to-unit basis. The other factor is the price floor. This price floor was created to encourage competition and affect consumers' willingness to pay because sometimes this new price may be higher than the original price. This causes a negative impact on a product that has a less than wanted perceived value. Many factors contribute to economic prosperity and certainly do help assure that information is analyzed and implemented into an economic and business plan.
Q3. The assumption of rational self-interest implies that people will choose to enrich themselves even if doing so violates the rights or property of others.
Q4. If you can earn $10 an hour as a retail clerk, $12 an hour as an office assistant, $16 an hour as a house painter, and $20 an hour repairing bicycles, what is your opportunity cost of working to repair bicycles?
a. $12 an hour
b. $10 an hour
c. $20 an hour
d. $16 an hour
Q5. In the graph of a production possibilities curve, both the horizontal and vertical axes measure the annual quantities of goods produced.
Q6. Scarcity arises because
a. international companies are slow to explore for new resources.
b. resources are finite and unable to meet all human wants and needs.
c. many countries waste goods because of inefficient political systems.
d. import taxes retard production.
Q7. A production possibilities curve with clothing and food on the axes shows which of the following?
I. A society cannot have an unlimited amount of each good.
II. For an efficient society, an increase in clothing production will necessitate a decrease in food production.
III. A society will always produce the maximum amount of both clothing and food.
a. II only
b. I only
c. III only
d. both I and II
Q8. All points on the production possibilities curve are efficient.
Q9. Economic growth can be pictured in a production possibilities curve diagram by
a. shifting the production possibilities curve out.
b. moving from right to left along the curve.
c. moving from left to right along the curve.
d. shifting the production possibilities curve in.
Q10. Suppose the current unemployment rate is 15 percent. If it rises to 20 percent,
a. the production possibilities curve will shift inward.
b. the economy will move closer to the production possibilities curve.
c. the economy will operate further inside the production possibilities curve.
d. the economy will move up along the production possibilities curve.
Q11. Clean air is a scarce resource.
Q12. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. A good is anything that gives satisfaction or happiness to individuals.
b. Wants may include humanitarian and altruistic goals.
c. Wants are unlimited and include all material and nonmaterial desires.
d. Economic goods are available in desired quantities at a zero price.
Q13. The current size of the U.S. labor force is less than 100 million workers.
Q14. The factors of production are
a. never as useful as people expect them to be.
b. valuable only because they are owned by corporations seeking to make a profit from them.
c. scarce resources.
d. abundant without limit on the planet.
Q15. Why do firms seek to use the least-cost combination of inputs?
a. because they won't be able to stay in business if they don't
b. because that is the combination that their employees prefer
c. because managers and supervisors find their jobs are easiest when the least-cost combination is used
d. because they want to keep costs low in order to appear to the media as a well-run business
Q16. Which one of the following best describes how economists view prices?
a. Low prices are good; high prices are bad.
b. High prices are good; low prices are bad.
c. The best price is a fair price.
d. Prices are signals of relative scarcity.
Q17. The person who creates a product innovation and brings it to market is providing the resource of
Q18. Gifts of nature used in the production process are considered
Q19. In a free market economy,
a. government decides what is produced, and producers decide who gets to consume it.
b. as a good becomes relatively more scarce, its price declines.
c. firms choose only to produce the most fashionable goods, regardless of the cost of production.
d. goods and services are allocated by a price system.
Q20. Resources are also known as
a. stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments.
c. factors of production.
Q21. The size of the U.S. labor force has declined over the past 20 years as many jobs have been outsourced from the United States to other countries.
Q22. Which one of the following is TRUE?
a. The growth of the U.S. population over the next several decades will come from immigration.
b. Population growth makes a country poorer, because there are more mouths to feed.
c. Real per capita GDP can increase only if there is inflation.
d. Real per capita GDP can increase only if there is no inflation.
Q23. Which one of the following is FALSE?
a. The U.S. labor force will continue to grow through immigration.
b. Inflation stops economic growth.
c. Increased availability of reliable communication channels at lower and lower costs have led to companies relocating their manufacturing operations offshore.
d. The size of the U.S. labor force continues to grow despite many jobs being moved off-shore.
Q24. What is the purpose of a market system?
a. to facilitate efficient exchange
b. to encourage consumers to buy goods on credit
c. to ensure an equal distribution of income
d. to ensure that everyone is treated fairly
Q25. The market system is also called the price system because
a. people pay money in markets.
b. everything has a price tag.
c. rising prices are the signal to producers to make more of a particular good.
d. inflation is a disturbing problem.
Q26. Production refers to
a. any activity that causes a material conversion of an object.
b. any activity that results in the conversion of resources into goods and services that can be consumed.
c. any activity carried on by a firm, whether a corporation, partnership, or sole proprietorship.
d. physically producing material goods only.
Q27. An increase in the price of coffee, holding other things constant, will
a. decrease the demand for coffee.
b. increase the demand for coffee.
c. decrease the quantity of coffee demanded.
d. decrease the supply of coffee.
Q28. The supply curve shifts when the firm experiences a change in its production technology.
Q29. A surplus results when the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded.
Q30. Table 3.1
Price per Constant-Quality Unit Quantity Demanded of Constant-Quality Units per Year Quantity Supplied of Constant-Quality Units per Year
$1.00 1,000 200
2.00 800 400
3.00 600 600
4.00 400 800
5.00 200 1,000
What condition characterizes a surplus?
a. Quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded.
b. Quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied.
c. Consumers are unhappy with the price.
d. Producers are unhappy with the price.
Q31. An increase in quantity demanded is caused by
a. an increase in income.
b. a decrease in the price of a complement.
c. a change in expectations about price in the future.
d. a decrease in the price of the good.
Q32. The demand curve is downward sloping because
a. price and quantity have a direct relationship.
b. price is always constant.
c. demand is based on supply.
d. price and quantity have an inverse relationship.
Q33. An increase in the price of one good will decrease the demand for a substitute good.
Q34. The market demand curve is the vertical summation of the demand curves of all the individuals in the market.
Q35. The equilibrium price of a good is a price that everyone is happy with.
Q36. Which one of the following would cause a rightward shift of the supply curve?
a. A new tax is imposed on production of the good.
b. Some firms that have been producing the good go out of business.
c. Firms producing the good find ways of lowering their production costs.
d. There is an increase in demand for the good.
Q37. Which of the following is a determinant of demand?
a. cost of production
b. number of suppliers
c. technology of production
Q38. The market demand curve for a particular good
a. will not be affected by any of the determinants of individual demand.
b. is the horizontal sum of each individual demand curve for the good.
c. will show a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded.
d. may be less than an individual demand curve for the good.
Q39. Table 4.4
Quantity of CDs Purchased Total Utility Marginal Utility
According to Table 4.4, what is the total utility when six CDs are purchased?
Q40. A rational consumer will never purchase a product when its
a. marginal utility is decreasing.
b. total utility is decreasing.
c. marginal utility is slightly positive.
d. marginal utility is negative.
Q41. The price elasticity of demand becomes relatively greater as more substitutes are easily available.
Q42. Which of the following statements is true with respect to total utility and marginal utility?
a. Marginal utility is always equal to total utility.
b. Total utility will always be negative when marginal utility is positive.
c. Total utility is minimized when marginal utility is zero.
d. Marginal utility can decline as total utility rises.
Q43. Table 4.3
Quantityof Soda Marginal Utility of Soda Quantityof Pizza Marginal Utility of Pizza
1 50 1 100
2 25 2 80
3 0 3 60
4 -25 4 40
After consuming what quantity of soda does the consumer in Table 4.3 experience diminishing marginal utility?
Q44. If the price elasticity of demand is 0.5, a 10 percent increase in the price will cause
a. the quantity demanded to decrease by 20 percent.
b. the quantity demanded to decrease by 50 percent.
c. the quantity demanded to increase by 50 percent.
d. the quantity demanded to decrease by 5 percent.
Q45. Which one of the following would make the demand for satellite subscription TV relatively less elastic?
a. The cost of administering the satellite service is lowered.
b. Cable TV service becomes less widely available.
c. Other networks of wireless entertainment become more widely available.
d. The cost of transmitting satellite signals is lowered.
Q46. A price increase will cause a relatively large drop in quantity demanded when
a. demand is perfectly inelastic.
b. the price elasticity of demand is 0.
c. there is very little time allowed for consumers to react.
d. the consumer has easy access to a number of substitute goods.
Q47. Table 4.6
Price Quantity Demanded
$ 8 150
According to the data in Table 4.6, what is the elasticity of demand between a price of $20 and a price of $16?
Q48. Price elasticity of demand is the responsiveness
a. of the quantity demanded to changes in supply.
b. of the quantity demanded to changes in income.
c. of the quantity demanded to changes in price.
d. of the quantity demanded to changes in quantity.
Q49. Everyone who views the latest adventure movie in theaters will derive the same utility from seeing it.
Q50. The law of diminishing marginal utility asserts that total utility becomes negative when marginal utility begins to diminish.