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EOSC 114 Notes for Exam - Turbulent Atmosphere

4 Pages

Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course Code
EOSC 114
Leah May Ver

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EOSC 114: Hurricanes Learning Goals 1. Be wary of the main storm hazards. -lightning -hail -downpours -local flooding, storm surges -downbursts -gustfronts Move from southwest to northeast 2. Recognize thunderstorms, be able to -anvilsign of thunderstorm at top, like a identify thunderstorm components, and and protrusion; top of troposhphere explain how they evolve. -overshooting top above anvil -mammatus cloudsunder anvils of some thunderstorms, but also on non-dangerous clouds…useless for identifying -main updraftmain part of the storm, where air is uplifted -wall cloudcloud that is between main thunderstorm and tornado 3. Explain how storms get their energy from Sunwarms water warm air updrafted air the Sun. parcelswindblown (advected) air parcelwarm air cools in storm, releases latent heat as sensible heatcondensation powers downdrafts 4. Explain the main characteristics that make a -long lasting supercell thunderstorm so much nastier than a -violent wind gusts normal thunderstorm. -cause tornadoes and hail -severe 5. Be able to recognize thunderstorms in radar -Orographic thunderstorm: form over and satellite images. mountains, can cause flash floods -Multicell thunderstorm: clump of multiple cells -Squall Line thunderstorms: long line of heavy rainfall thunderstorms -Air Mass thunderstorms: only need heat from hot ground, don’t need to form on fronts -Supercell: if mesocyclone, rotation visible 6. Describe the different types of lightning, -Inter-cloud (IC) how they form, and what happens when they -Cloud-Ground (CG) strike something. positive-->less frequent, stronger, formed from anvil (further distance, must be stronger), more likely to cause wild fires negativemore frequent, not as strong, formed from main cloud (base), Stepped leader is first unseen path of lightning that meets with streamers from tall objects. After, the return stroke (visible part) strikes again, creating thunder. Lightning Alleys: Florida (US) & Ontario (CA) 7. Explain the behavior of downbursts and Downbursts: rapid fall of cool air due to EOSC 114: Hurricanes Learning Goals gust fronts, and identify their associated cloud precipitation dragging air down +evaporation & dust features. as it falls, cooling air Gust front: after downbursts hit ground, air moves fast horizontally, called gust front. gust front over dust = haboob (dust/sand storm) gust front pushing up humid air = arc cloud 8. Describe why the fact that "cold air holds Warm air rises to thunderstorms, and cools on less water vapour than warm air" is critical in the way. Once it reaches its dew-point temp, explaining how thunderstorms can extract condensation occurs, releasing latent heat. energy from humid air This latent heat is the energy for storms. 9. Recognize mammatus clouds and the Mammatus cloudsunder anvil in flanking line, and describe their relationship to thunderstorm clouds, also in non-dangerous thunderstorms. clouds; not used for identifying Flanking lineline of clouds behind mature cell, still in cumulus stage. Winds help grow these new cells into mature stage; in multicell, squall line thunderstorms 10. Explain how vertical and horizontal winds Temperature affects both vertical & horizontal are created by heat released in storms. winds: -Vertical windsdue to buoyancy, which is due to density, which is due to temperature (warmer airless denserises, more buoyant) -Horizontal windsdue to pressure gradient, which is due to temperature (warmer air expandmore pressurepush outward) 11. Explain what the continuity effect is, and Continuityie air is continuous, so air how it ties vertical and
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