Chapter 6 Independent Questions
I. Theories of Social and Personality Development
A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives – See lecture notes
B. Ethological Perspectives
1. (a) Bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships. Clarify
the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment? (Note: See definitions in the margin,
as the phrasing in the paragraph is poor.) P149-150
Affectionate bond: the emotional tie to an infant experienced by a parent
Attachment: the emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the
child derives security
(b) Define reactive attachment disorder. Child is attached to parents
Reactive attachment disorder: A disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming
close social relationship.
Research Report: Adoption and Development
2. Read the research report on pp. 150-151.
(a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted?
Many aspects of temperament and personality are inherited.
Example: 2 really shy parents adopt a very outgoing child; the parents may
view the child‘s behavior as difficult in some ways.
Adoptive parents need to take into account the child‘s circumstances prior to the
adoption to form a realistic set of expectations.
Children adopted before of 6 months who have no history of abuse etc, are
indistinguishable from non-adopted children in security of attachment,
cognitive development and social adjustment. This is true even is its
(b) What did Elinor Ames‘s (1997) research with Romanian orphans find?
Found that the infants who had lived in the Romanian orphanages for more than 4
months before being adopted by British Columbian families tended to have more
psychological and motor-behavior problems than non-adopted children. The more
months they lived in the Romanian orphanage the more serious their difficulties were.
(c) What did Lucy LeMare‘s (2001) research with Romanian orphans find?
She assessed Romanian Orphans that were 10 years old. They found that there was
considerable variability between individuals but as a group the RO continued to show
significantly more difficulties than comparable Canadian-born or early-adopted
RO children had lower than average IQ‘s and academic achievement, and more
difficulties with attention, learning and peer relationships
A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant
3. (a) Define synchrony. Synchrony: A mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent
and a child
(b) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar between fathers and mothers.
Depend more on the development of synchrony than on contact immediately after
The father seems to have the same repertoire of attachment behaviors as do mothers.
During the early weeks of the baby‘s life, fathers touch, talk to and cuddle their babies
in the same ways mothers do.
(c) Identify the parental behaviours that are different between fathers and mothers.
After the first week, signs of a kind of a specialization of parental behaviors begin to
emerge. Fathers spend more time playing with the baby, with more physical
roughhousing; mothers spend more in routine care giving and also talk to and smile at
the baby more.
This does not mean that fathers have a weaker affection bond with the infant,
it only means that fathers and mothers use different attachment behaviors in
interacting with their infants.
By 6 months, there are more mother-father differences. Signs of positive emotional
states, such as smiling appear gradually and subtly when babies are interacting with
their mothers. Babies laugh and wriggle with delight in short intense burst in
interactions with their fathers. This means that infants recognize the same
behavioral differences in mothers and fathers that development scientist do when they
observe parental behavior.
B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents
i. Establishing Attachment – See lecture notes
ii. Attachment Behaviours
4. Some parent-infant interactions incorporate affect dysregulation. Describe this type of interactional
pattern and record the research findings related to it.
Affect Dysreugulation: An interaction pattern in which a care givers emotional
response to an infant interfere with the baby‘s ability to learn how to regulate his or
More common in infant-mother pairs in which mother displays low level of
sensitivity to the infants needs and the infant is insecurely attached.
The quality of the emotional give-and take in interactions between an infant
and his caregivers is important to the child‘s ability to control emotions such
as anger and frustration in later years
iii. Internal Models – See lecture notes
C. Variations in Attachment Quality
i. Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes
ii. Stability of Attachment Classifications – See lecture notes
D. Caregiver characteristics and attachment
i. Emotional Responsiveness 5. (a) Define the two crucial ingredients for secure attachment.
Secure attachment: a pattern of attachment in which an infant readily separates from
the parent, seeks proximity when stressed and uses the parent as a safe bas for
Has been the most common pattern in every country
(b) A low level of parental responsiveness is associated with both types of insecure attachment.
However, each type of insecure attachment is distinct. Explain what parental responses are
associated with (i) avoidant patterns of attachment, (ii) ambivalent patterns of attachment (which is
the same as the ―anxious‖ type), and (iii) disorganized/disoriented patterns of attachment (which is
a fourth type of attachment identified by more contemporary researchers – that is, not one of
Ainsworth‘s three types of attachment).
Avoidant attachment: A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids contact with
the parent and shows no preference for the parent over other people
Ambivalent attachment: A pattern of attachment in which the infant shows little
exploratory behavior, is greatly upset when separated from the parent, and is not
reassured by his or her return or efforts to comfort him.
Disorganized/disoriented attachment: A pattern of attachment in which an infant
seems confused or apprehensive and shows contradictory behavior, such as moving
toward the parent while looking away from him or her
ii. Marital Status and SES
6. (a) How does age influence the attachment process?
For the first 2, 3 years: The pattern of attachment a child shows is in some sense a
property of each specific relationship.
30% of the children are securely attached to one parent and insecurely
attached to the other, with both possible combinations equally likely.
It is the quality of each relationship that determines the security of the
child‘s attachment to that specific adult.
By age 4 or 5: The internal model becomes more a property of the child and more
generalized across relationships, and thus more resistant to change. At that point, the
child tends to impose the model on new relationships, including relationships with
teachers or peers.
(b) How does marital conflict influence the attachment process?
Marital status, predicts attachment quality. The effects of marital status may be due to
other characteristics of parents who choose to marry, cohabit, or remain single.
Another one is educational background.
Marital conflict poses risks for the development of attachment. Researchers have
found that 6 months olds who are aggressive toward each other, are more likely to
display signs of emotional withdrawals than babies who are not so exposed. Emotional
withdrawal lessens the chances that he will develop a secure attachment to his primary
iii. Mental Health – (optional reading – not on exams)
E. Long-term Consequences of Attachment Quality
7. The effects of attachment quality have been empirically investigated. Summarize the effects of
attachment during the stages of (a) childhood, (b) adolescence and (c) adulthood. (a) Childhood: Children securely attached to their mothers in infancy are later more
sociable, more positive in their behavior toward friends and siblings, less clinging and
dependent on teachers, less aggressive and disruptive, more empathetic and more
emotionally mature in their interactions in school and outside of home.
(b) Adolescence: Adolescence who were rated securely attached in infancy or who are
classed as secure on the basis of interviews in adolescence are also more socially
skilled, have more intimate friendships, are more likely to be rated as leaders, and
have higher self esteem and better grades.
Those with insecure attachments (avoidant attachments) – have less
positively and supportive friendships in adolescence, more likely to become
sexually active early and practice riskier sex.
(c) Adulthood: Adult‘s internal model of attachment affects his or her parenting
behaviors. Mothers who are themselves securely attached are more responsive and
sensitive in their behaviors toward infants or young children (parenting attitudes)/
Parents with insecure attachment are more likely to view their infants
negatively. Such parents lack confidence in their ability to perform
effectively in the parenting role.
III. Personality, Temperament, and Self-Concept
A. Dimensions of Temperament
Temperament is defined as inborn predispositions (nature) that affect how infants behave and
emotionally respond to their environment. Temperament is the foundation for personality, which
emerges in later stages of development. For instance, in chapter 10, you will be introduced to five
personality types; however, in the current chapter, the focus is on temperament.
8. (a) Based on their nine dimensions, Thomas and Chess propose three types of infant temperament:
(i) easy, (ii) difficult, and (iii) slow-to-warm-up. Define each of these three types of temperament.
(b) Contemporary theories of temperament suggest there are five traits or dimensions in infancy: (i)
activity level, (ii) approach/positive emotionality, (iii) inhibition, (iv) negative emotionality, and
(v) effortful control/task persistence.
(i) Easy temperament: a predisposition to approaching new events positively,
displaying predictable sleeping and eating cycles, being generally happy,
and adjusting easily to change.
(ii) Difficult temperament: a predisposition for irregular sleeping and eating
cycles, emotional negativity and irritability, and resistance to change
(iii) Slow- to-warm-up temperament: a predisposition for inactivity and
turning away from and adjusting slowly to unfamiliar people and new
experiences. They display mild signs of negativity and discomfort.
(i) Activity level: refers to an infant‘s tendency either to move often and
vigorously or to remain passive or immobile.
(ii) Approach/positive emotionality: a tendency to move toward rather than
away from new people, things or objects, usually accompanied by positive
(iii) Inhibition: a tendency to respond with fear or withdrawal to new people,
new situations, or new objects – is the slip side of the approach
(iv) Negative emotionality: is a tendency to respond to frustrating
circumstances with anger, fussing, loudness or irritability. (v) Effortful control/ task persistence: an ability to stay focused and to
manage attention and effort.
B. Origins and Stability of Temperament
i. Heredity - (optional reading – not on exams)
ii. Neurological Processes
9. Jerome Kagan believes that temperament is the result of our physiology and neurology. According
to Kagan, what is the basis for human shyness or behavioural inhibition?
Differences in behavior inhibition or shyness are based on differing thresholds for
arousal in the parts of the brain that control responses to uncertainty.
Two important neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, regulates the brains
responses to new information and unusual situations, precisely the kinds of stimuli
that appear to overestimate shy children.
Frontal lobe asymmetry. In shy infants, it responds differently.
10. Why is it impossible to know whether Kagan‘s findings are causes or effects? (See first para