Chapter 12 Independent Questions.docx

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University of British Columbia
Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 12 Independent QuestionsI Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentA Psychoanalytic Perspectives1 a According to Erikson what is an identity crisis Identity an understanding of ones unique characteristics and how they have been are and will be manifested across ages situations and social roles identity versus role confusionin Eriksons theory the stage during which adolescents attain a sense of who they areidentity crisis Eriksons term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arises when an adolescents sense of self becomes unglued so that a new more mature sense of self can be achievedb How do peer groups help adolescents with an identity crisisteenaged group thus forms a base of security from which the young person can move toward a unique solution of the identity crisis Ultimately however each teenager must achieve an integrated view of himself including his own pattern of beliefs occupational goals and relationshipsB Marcias Theory of Identity Achievement2 Marcia argued that adolescent identity formation consists of two key dimensions a crisis and a commitment a Define crisis and commitment A crisis according to Marcia meant a period of decisionmaking when old values and old choices are reexamined This may occur as an upheavalthe classic notion of a crisisor it may occur gradually The outcome of the reevaluation is a commitment to some specific role value goal or ideology In sum the achievement of an ego identity refers to a sense of who one is based on who one has been and who one can realistically imagine oneself to be in the futureb Based on the two dimensions in 2a four identity types emerge i Identity Achievementii Foreclosure iii Moratorium and iv Identity Diffusion Determine whether a crisis and commitment exists in each of the four types See Figure 121Moratorium A crisis is in progress but no commitment has yet been madeForeclosure The person has made a commitment without having gone through a crisis No reassessment of old positions has been made Instead the young person has simply accepted a parentally or culturally defined commitmentIdentity diffusion The young person is not in the midst of a crisis although there may have been one in the past and has not made a commitment Diffusion may thus represent either an early stage in the process before a crisis or a failure to reach a commitment after a crisisIdentity achievement The person has been through a crisis and has reached a commitment to ideological occupational or other goalsII SelfConcept and PersonalityA SelfUnderstanding3 How does selfconcept change from 10 years of age to 18 years of age See Figure 22B Gender RoleSee Lecture TemplatesCh 8 Gender Identity C SelfEsteemSee Lecture TemplatesCh 8 Gender IdentityD Ethnic Identity4 Summarize the key points and research findings in this section
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