Chapter 8 Independent Questions.doc

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Family Studies
FMST 210
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Chapter 8 Social and Personality Development in Early ChildhoodI Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentA Psychoanalytic Perspectives1a What is the difference between complimentary attachment relationships AND reciprocal relationshipsComplimentary attachment relationshipseach child needs an attachment to someone who has greater knowledge and social power such as a parent a teacher or even an older sibling The bond may be extremely powerful in both directions but the actual behaviours the two individuals show toward each other are not the sameReciprocal relationshipsrelationship with others such as sameage peers or nearage siblings whose knowledge and social power are equal to their own In this relationship partners demonstrate the same behaviour toward each other and often work together to accomplish a taskb What are the unique benefits or functions of 1 complimentary and 2 reciprocal relationships for preschoolersA child needs both in order to develop effective social skillsAttachment relationships are necessary to provide the child with protection and security In these relationships children create basic internal working models and learn fundamental social skillsIn reciprocal relationshipsin friendships and in peer groupschildren practice social behaviour and acquire those social skills that can only be learned in a relationship between equals cooperation competition and intimacyB SocialCognitive PerspectivesSocialcognitive theories assume there are important relationships between childrens cognitive gains and social gains The concepts and research in this section investigate this relationship 2a Define person perceptionThe ability to classify others according to categories such as age and genderb Identify two reasons why preschoolers classification skills limit their person perceptionTwo reasons 1 Personal perception is inconsistent because it is based on recent interactions 2 Because it is based on observable characteristicsYoung childrens observations and categorizations of people are far less consistent than those of older children because they tend to base them on their most recent interactions with those individuals They also categorize others on the basis of observable characteristic such as age and genderPsychological self is focused on internalc The ability to classify things also influences preschoolers understanding of different types of rules Socialcognitive theorists note that preschoolers begin to understand the difference between social conventions and moral rules which further promotes their social development Define social conventions and moral rules Identify the research findings which provide evidence that preschoolers cognitively understand this differenceSocial conventionsa rule that serves to regulate behaviour but has no moral implicationsMoral rulesregulations based on an individuals or a societys fundamental sense of right and wrong1Young children use classification skills to take another important step in social development when they begin to understand the difference between social conventions and moral rules Researchers have found that children begin to respond differently to violations of social conventions and moral rules between age 2 and 3 This kind of understanding seems to develop both as a consequence of preschoolers increasing capacity for classification and as a result of adults tendency to emphasize moral transgressions more than socialconvention violations when punishing childrend A third way that preschoolers cognitive development influences their social development is related to understanding others intentions Read the section entitled Understanding others intentions and identify what influences preschoolers judgments of others intentThe outcomes influence preschoolers judgments In other words they were more likely to say a child who wanted to hurt his playmate was good if he failed to hit the child with the ballII Family RelationshipsA Attachment3a Compare attachment at 12 months and at 23 years of ageBy 12 months of age a baby has normally established a clear attachment to at least one caregiver By age 2 or 3 the attachment is just as strong but many attachment behaviours have becomes less visibleb What behaviours does attachment predict during the preschool yearsChildren who are securely attached to parents experience fewer behaviour problems Specifically those who are insecurely attached display more anger and aggression toward both peers and adults in soci setting such as daycare and preschoolc How does attachment change when preschoolers are approximately 4 years old Bowlby described the new stage as a goalcorrected partnership The preschooler grasps that the relationship continues to exist even when the partners are apart Also the childs internal model of attachment appears to generalize Bowlby argued that the childs model becomes less a specific property of an individual relationship and more a general property of all the childs social relationships Thus 4 and 5 year olds who are securely attached to their parents are more likely than their insecurely attached peers to have positive relationships with their preschool teachersd Preschoolers compliance is contextdependent Identify the 4 situations contexts mentioned in your textbook and note whether each context is associated with high or low compliance ratesThey are more likely to comply with safety requests Dont touch that its hot or with prohibitions about care of objects Dont tear up the book than they are with requests to delay I cant talk to you now Im on the phone or with instructions about selfcare Please wash your hands now B Parenting StylesSee lecture notes and answer the independent question below4a Define inductive disciplineExplain why you are punishing Skinner says that explaining why is not necessary and says that punishment should be immediate However this punishment doesnt work because children dont know why they get punishedb Identify the research findings related to inductive discipline2
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