Chapter 12 Independent Questions2.doc

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University of British Columbia
Family Studies
FMST 210

Chapter 12 Independent QuestionsI Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentA Psychoanalytic Perspectives1a Identify what Erikson believed to be the central crisis in adolescence Make sure you also describedefine the central crisis and note why Erikson believed it occurs in adolescence as opposed to other stages of developmentIdentity versus role confusion is the stage during which adolescents attain a sense of who they are in Eriksons stage Erikson argued that the childs early sense of identity comes partly unglued in early adolescence because of the combination of rapid body growth and the sexual changes of puberty Erikson claimed that during this period the adolescents mind is in a kind of moratorium between childhood and adulthood The old identity will no longer suffice a new identity must be forged one that will equip the young person for the myriad roles of adult lifeoccupational roles sexual values religious and political beliefs and others b According to Erikson individuals must experience role confusion or an identity crisis before they can truly achieve identity What is an identity crisisIdentity crisis is a period during which an adolescent is troubled by his lack of an identity c According to Erikson how does an identity crisis affect adolescents peer relationships Erikson believed that adolescents tendency to identify with peer groups is a defence against the emotional turmoil engendered by the identity crisis In a sense he claimed teens protect themselves against the unpleasant emotions of the identity crisis by merging their individual identities with that of a group The teenaged group thus forms a base of security from which the young person can move toward a unique solution of the identity crisis Ultimately however each teenager must achieve an integrated view of himself including his own pattern of beliefs occupational goals and relationshipsB James Marcias Research2James Marcia a professor at SFU before he retired tested Eriksons theory about the changes during adolescence In particular he investigated whether an identity crisis is necessary for optimum identity formation as Erikson believed James Marcia used a research approach you should be familiar with 1 identify the important theoretical dimensions 2 create categories or types based on scores along the dimensions high or low scores and 3 investigate whether there are important differences between the four types along a variety of dependent variables aIdentify the two dimensions Note that the dimensions are identified by the theorist or Erikson in this caseA crisis meant a period of divisionmaking when old values and old choices are reexamined The outcome of the reevaluation is a commitment to some specific role value foal or ideologybIdentify the four identity types or identity statuses Marcia created Make sure you know how each type scores along both dimensions high or low This information is stated in Figure 121Identity achievement the person has been through a crisis and has reached a commitment to ideological occupational or other goals crisis Y commitment Y
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