Ch.1 IQ.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Family Studies
Course Code
FMST 210
Professor
Maria Weatherby

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Chapter 1: Independent Questions I. The Scientific Study of Human Development 1. Define developmental psychology – the scientific study of age-related changes in our bodies, behavior, thinking, emotions, social relationships, and personalities. A. Philosophical Roots 2. Identify the key ideas and the implied parental responsibilities of: (a) The doctrine of original sin – all humans are born with selfish and stubborn nature; humans must seek redemption by leading a disciplined life. Child = sinful; parents = intervene to correct child’s immoral tendencies. (b) Rousseau – Innate Goodness. All human beings naturally good and seek out experiences to help them grow. Children only need nurturing and protection to reach full potential. Good development when no environmental interference; poor outcome when encounter frustration. Child = good; parent = nurture and protect. (c) Locke – Blank Slate. Empiricism: humans possess no innate tendencies and all differences among humans due to experience. Children have blank slate molded by adults and childhood environment. Child = neutral; parents = shape behavours. (d) If you attended an elementary school that endorsed a policy to reduce teacher control because students are viewed as naturally possessing the desire or internal motivation to work hard, this policy would best reflect the ideas of b. (Choose between 2 a, b, or c) B. The Study of Human Development Becomes a Science Since the 1930s philosophical ideas have been translated into scientific theories. In turn, scientific theories are tested/evaluated using scientific research methods. This section reviews some of the early scientific theories that have paved the way for the more contemporary scientific theories, which are covered in chapter two. 3. (a) What concept did Darwin’s theory of evolution contribute to developmental psychology? The concept of developmental stages. (b) What concept did Hall contribute to developmental psychology? Define this concept. -child development -milestones of childhood similar to those in development of human species -should identify ‘norms’ or avg ages at which developmental milestones are reached, to track development of individual children (c) What concept did Gesell contribute to developmental psychology? Define this concept. -‘maturation’ – genetically programmed sequential pattern of change -maturationally determined development occurs regardless of practice/training (ex. Infants walking) C. A Brief History of the Roots of Psychology in Canada – (optional reading – not on exams) II. Contemporary Developmental Psychology 4. Identify the THREE ways that contemporary developmental psychology has changed since the early days (see introductory paragraph only). -term ‘development’ now encompasses entire human lifespan rather than just childhood and adolescence -developmentalists have come to understand that inborn characteristics interact with environmental factors in complex ways -norms doesn’t equal change; norms only one way of measuring change A. The Lifespan Perspective 5. (a) Your textbook states that the lifespan perspective invites interdisciplinary investigations. What unique contributes do psychology, anthropology, and sociology typically make to the study of human development. -psychology: lifespan perspective -anthropology: info about culture -sociology: influence of race, socioeconomic status, other social factors on individual development (b) Define the lifespan perspective - changes happen throughout the entire human lifespan and that changes must be interpreted in light of the culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary study crucial to understanding human development (c) What did one of the early leaders in the lifespan perspective (Paul Baltes) propose about plasticity? -capacity for positive change (plasticity) in response to environmental demands is possible throughout the entire lifespan -positive aspects of advanced age; as humans age, they adopt strategies that help maximize gains and compensate for losses -ex. Older adults pursue goals more intensely than younger adults B. The Domains of Development 6. Although there are multiple factors that influence human development, no single theory has been able to comprehensively incorporate these multiple factors. As a result, it is typically appropriate to think of each theory as limited or narrowly focused on one of the domains of development. (a) Identify THREE domains of human development – physical, cognitive, social domains (b) Identify what each of the three domains address or include. -physical domain: changes in size, shape, characteristics of body (puberty). How individuals sense and perceive physical world (ex. Gradual development of depth perception at age 1) -cognitive domain: changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving, other intellectual skills -social domain: changes in variables associated with relationship of individual with others, individual differences in personali
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