Ch.2 IQ.doc

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Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 2: Independent Questions ______________________________________________________________________________ I. Biological and Evolutionary Theories 1. Summarize the two introductory paragraphs of this section. -both genetic and epigenetic factors interact with environmental variable to shape our level of health and well-being across lifespan -epigenetic processes integrate nature and nurture -genetic and physiological processes that underlie human behavior changed gradually over time through genetic mutations and natural selection -evolution used to explain cognitive, social, cultural behaviours A. Genetics 2. Define the following terms: (a) chromosomes – strings of genetic material in the nuclei of cells (b) DNA – chemical material that makes up chromosomes and genes (c) genes – complex chemical units of a chromosome that control or influence inherited traits (d) genome – all the DNA an organism possesses B. Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Patterns of Inheritance (optional reading – not on the exams) C. Epigenetics 3. Define the following terms: (a) epigenome – the sum total of inherited and acquired molecular modifications to the genome that leads to changes in gene regulation without changing the DNA sequence of the genome (b) gene expression – when a gene sequence is activated (‘turned on’) and ready to be translated into gene products – proteins, for the most part (c) gene silencing – when a gene sequence is made inactive (‘turned off’) and is prevented from being translated into gene products – proteins, for the most part 4. Summarize the research findings from the field of Epigenetics presented in the third and fourth paragraphs of this section on “Epigenetics” (pp. 27- 28). - Moshe Szyf and Michael Meaney found that epigenetic factors play pivotal role in lifespan development -maternal care can physically alter molecular epigenetic structures in offspring (ex. Mother rat’s increased postnatal feeding and grooming of her pups resulted in calmer rat pups by altering molecular epigenetic structures) -some epigenetic modifications can be passed on from one generation to the next; even epigenetic changes caused by changes in maternal diet have been passed on in mice populations -acquired epigenetic traits linked to chromosome structure alterations may be inherited in humans D. Evolutionary Theories i. Nativism 5. Describe this theoretical view and identify the example provided. - view that humans possess unique genetic traits that will be manifested in all members of the species, regardless of differences in their environment -behaviors that appear early in life, develop in almost every individual in every culture, does not exist in other species - ex. All healthy children learn language early in life without any specific instruction form Adults, and, to date, no evidence of grammatical language in nonhuman species ii. Ethology 6. Describe this theoretical view and identify the examples provided. - emphasizes genetically determined survival behaviors that are assumed to have evolved through natural selection - ex. birds and nests; baby’s cry and parents irritation = create emotional bond iii. Behaviour Genetics 7. Describe this theoretical view and identify the examples provided. - focuses on effect of heredity on individual differences - traits/behaviors influenced by genes when related people (child and parent) are more similar than those of unrelated people -ex. Intelligence, shyness, aggressiveness iv. Sociobiology 8. Describe this theoretical view and identify the examples provided. - study of society using methods and concepts of biological science -emphasizes genes that aid group survival; humans have better chance of survival when in groups => evolution has provided us with genetic programming for cooperation - ex. Laws against murder (create rules based on respect for others lives, cooperation) v. Evolutionary Psychology (optional reading – not on the exams) vi. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (optional reading – not on the exams) vii. Evolutionary Prenatal Programming and Adult Health and Disease (optional reading – not on the exams) E. Evaluation of Biological and Evolutionary Theories i. Disease Control 9. Summarize all the text in this section. - advances in human genomics will play vital role in predicting and preventing diseases in 21 cen. st -greatest impact of advances in human genomics will likely be in treatment of multifactorial diseases (heart disease and cancer) -ex. BC cancer agency research team decoded 3 billion letters in DNA sequence of a type of breast cancer -both external and personal factors influence epigenetic mechanisms; epigenetic changes alter gene expression, which can increase risk for developing physical and psychological disorders -epigenetic marking on DNA are continually being modified throughout lifespan and any acquired traits may be passed onto next generation - epigenetics may be ‘missing link’ to explaining interaction between nurture and nature ii. Early Intervention 10. Summarize all the text in this section. - awareness of importance of early-life events in making accurate predictive-adaptive responses that match expected future environments -focus on need to promote early interventional strategies during prenatal development (support good health and nutrition in females of reproductive age) versus later on in adult life -will prevent chronic disease in future generations iii. Remaining Questions 11. Summarize all the text in this section. - underestimate impact of environment and too much emphasis on heredity -some theories concerning heredity hard to prove - even if strong biological basis for specific cognitive strategies or social behaviors, they can still be modified by learning or experience II. Psychoanalytic Theories A. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory – (optional reading – not on the exams) B. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (optional reading – not on the exams) C. Evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theories (optional reading – not on the exams) D. The Humanistic Alternative 12. (a) Summarize the key points presented in the introductory paragraph about the nature of Humanistic Theories. - focus on positive aspects of development while accepting psychoanalytic assumption that behavior is motivated by internal drives and emotions -humanistic theories share Rousseau’s innate goodness and optimistic assumption that most important internal drive is individual’s motivation to achieve full potential - Abraham Maslow: self-actualization = process of fulfilling one’s unique personal potential i. Motives 13. Summarize the key points that pertain to Maslow’s
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