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Chapter 8 Independent Questions.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Family Studies
Course Code
FMST 210
Professor
Maria Weatherby

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Chapter 8 Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood I Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentB SocialCognitive Perspectives1 Define the viewpoint held by SocialCognitive Theories socialcognitive theory assumes that social and emotional changes in the child are the result of or at least are facilitated by the enormous growth in cognitive abilities that happens during the preschool years the theoretical perspective that asserts that social and personality development in early child hood is related to improvements in the cognitive domaini Person Perception 2 a Define person perception the ability to classify others according to categories such as age gender and race b Identify two reasons why preschoolers observational and classification skills limit their person perception skills They focus on the most recent event and it as to be observable c Define the crossrace effect and age when it is established Preschoolers also categorize others on the basis of observable characteristics such as race age and gender For example the crossrace effect a phenomenon in which individuals are more likely to remember the faces of people of their own race than those of people of a different race is established by ageii Understanding Rule Categories 3 a What is the difference between social conventions and moral rulessocial conventions such as customs that govern where to place flatware are rules that have nothing to do with our fundamental sense of right and wrong Consequently most of us are not troubled when the rules are violated and take a dim view of people who are bothered by such trifles By contrast we have little tolerance for the breaking of rules that we view as having a basis in morality such as laws that forbid stealing and unwritten rules such as the one that prohibits you from flirting with your best friends romantic partnerb When do children appear to understand this difference children begin to respond differently to violations of social conventions and moral rules between ages 2 andiii Understanding Others Intentions 4 What influences preschoolers judgments of others intent according to the research findings by Nelson 1980 See third paragraph Problem here is the outcome of the action problem with understanding intent Kids focus on the outcome and not the intention ex if a child is hurt they focus on the outcome and not on whether or not it was an accident II Family Relationships and StructureA Attachment5 a Compare attachment at 12 months and at 23 years of age by 12 months of age a baby has normally established a clear attachment to at least one caregiver By age 2 or 3 the attachment is just as strong but many attachment behaviours have become less visible Threeyearolds still want to sit on Moms or Dads lap they are still likely to seek some closeness when Mom returns from an absence But when she is not afraid or under stress the 3yearold is able to wander farther and farther from her safe base
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