FMST 210 Study Guide - Ectopic Pregnancy, Umbilical Cord, Gestational Diabetes

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20 Nov 2012
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Chapter 3 – Independent Questions
I. Conception
A. The Process of Conception – (optional reading – not on the exams)
II. Pregnancy and Prenatal Development
A. The Mother’s Experience
1. The mother’s experience of pregnancy is divided into 3 equal parts or trimesters: (i) first
trimester 0-12 weeks, (ii) second trimester 13-24 weeks, (iii) third trimester 25-38
weeks.
(a) You need to know the information summarized under the headings “Trimester”,
“Events” and “Serious Problems” (not “Prenatal Care”) in Table 3.1 (p. 62).
- first trimester (0 - 12 weeks)
-events: missed period, breast enlargement, abdominal thickening
-serious problems: ectopic pregnancy, abnormal urine/blood tests, increased
blood pressure, malnutrition, bleeding, miscarriage
-second trimester (13 – 24 weeks)
-events: weight gain, ‘showing’, fetal movements felt, increased appetite
- serious problems: gestational diabetes, excessive weight gain, increased
Blood pressure, Rh incompatibility of mother and fetus, miscarriage 13-20
Weeks, premature labor 21+ weeks
-third trimester (25-38 weeks)
-events: weight gain, breast discharge
-increased blood pressure, bleeding, premature labor, bladder infection
(b) You also need to know the italicized words/terms only on pp. 61-63 under the
subheadings “First Trimester”, “Second Trimester”, and “Third Trimester”.
-pregnancy = physical condition in which a woman’s body is nurturing a developing
embryo or fetus
-prenatal development/gestation = process that transforms a zygote into a newborn
-trimesters = 3 periods of 3 months each
-womb = woman’s uterus; where zygote plants itself
-cervix = narrow, lower portion of uterus, extends into vagina
-NVP = nausea and vomiting in pregnancy/ morning sickness
-ectopic pregnancy = zygote implants in fallopian tube instead of in uterus
-spontaneous abortion = miscarriage
-gestational diabetes = only happens during pregnancy
-colostrum = secretion in breasts in preparation for nursing baby
-toxemia of pregnancy = life-threatening condition signaled by a sudden increase in
blood pressure and can cause pregnant woman to stroke
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B. Prenatal Development
2. There are 2 patterns of physical growth in the developing fetus: cephalocaudal and
proximodistal patterns. Define each of these patterns of physical development.
-cephalocaudal pattern = growth that proceeds from head downward
-proximodistal pattern = growth that proceeds from middle of body outward
3. There are 3 stages of prenatal development, which are defined by specific developmental
milestones. Unlike the mother’s experience, the three stages of prenatal development are
not equal in length. The first two weeks are referred to as the germinal stage; weeks 3-8
are referred to as the embryonic stage; weeks 8-38 are referred to as the fetal stage.
(a) You need to know all of the information in Table 3.2. (Except the first sentence about
the weight and length gains in the fetal stage)
-Germinal stage
Day 1: conception
-sperm meets ovum, form zygote containing genetic instructions
Days 10-14: implantation
-zygote burrows into lining of uterus
-formation of specialized cells that become placenta, umbilical cord, embryo
-Embryonic stage
Weeks 3-8: Organogenesis
-all embryo’s organ systems form during 6 week period after implantation
-Fetal stage
Weeks 9-38: Growth and organ refinement
-by week 12, gender can be determined
-changes in brain and lungs make viability possible by week 24
-most neurons form by week 28 and connections among them develop shortly after
-last 8 weeks, fetus can hear, smell, sensitive to touch, responds to light, possible
learning
(b)You also need to know the italicized and bold words ONLY on pp. 63-66 under the
subheadings “The Germinal Stage”, “The Embryonic Stage”, and “The Fetal Stage”.
-blastocyst = hollow, fluid-filled ball
-implantation = after conception, part of germinal stage; blastocyst completely buried
in uterine tissue
-germinal stage = first stage of prenatal development; conception – implantation (2
weeks)
-placenta = organ that allows oxygen, nutrients, other substances to be transferred
Between mother’s and baby’s blood (no blood mixing)
- umbilical cord = organ connecting embryo to placenta
-yolk sac = structure that produces blood cells until embryo’s blood-cell-producing
organs are formed
-amnion = fluid-filled sac in which baby floats until just before it is born
-embryonic stage = second stage of prenatal development, 2-8 weeks, organ systems
form
-neurons = specialized cells of nervous system
-neural tube = structure formed by neurons from which brain and spinal cord develop
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