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Food, Nutrition and Health
FNH 200
Azita Madadi- Noei

F INAL R EVIEW F ILL IN THE BLANK 1. Ice cream is usually frozen using this process (be specific): 2. This type of mycotoxins can be found in peanuts, are highly toxic and potently carcinogenic: 3. The mechanism of heat transfer in canned tomato juice is primarily by: 4. This term defines the heat treatment applied to ensure that no viable organisms will be present: M ATCHING List of answers: Escherichia coli 0157:H7, sucrose, aspartame, histamine Questions 1. Microorganism associated with “hamburger disease” 2. Toxin associated with scombroid poisoning 3. Sugar substitute made of 2 amino acids 4. Sugar found in nectar of flowers collected by honey bees SHORT A NSWERS Fruit juices sold in the refrigerated case of the grocery store are an example of a “perishable” food commodity, yet these fruit juices can also be purchased as a “shelf-stable” product stored at room temperature 1. Define “perishable” and “shelf-stable” foods (2marks) Perishable: have a shelf life of less than 60 days (0.5) and are not processed or are only minimally processed (0.5) Shelf-stable: shelf life of > 6 months (0.5); some process of preservation is used (0.5) 2. Compare and contrast the processes that lead to the two types of fruit juices. Explain the method for shelf-life extension of these two types of fruit juices (4marks) process kills pathogenic bacteria (0.25) but not all the spoilage causing MOs (psychrotrophic bacteria) (0.25). Pasteurized prod. still need to be refrigerated in order to extend their shelf life (0.25) and have a Durable life date (Best before date) printed on the label (0.25) Shelf stable fruit juice: UHT- -6 sec (0.5) with aseptic packaging (0.5). This process destroys spoilage (0.25) and disease-causing (0.25) MOs. Products can be stored at room temp (0.25) and their shelf life is a lot longer than pasteurized fruit juices… >6 months...(0.25) 3. What is food irradiation as defined by Food and Drug Regulations of Canada? (2marks) Treatment of food with “Ionizing Energy” (0.5)- Using beta, gamma rays, etc.. (0.5); these are short wavelengths with high penetrating power (1) 4. Explain the underlying mechanism(s) for food preservation by ionizing radiation (4marks) I.E. can destroy spoilage, pathogenic MOs, prevent sprouting, pest control… (1) By Direct effects- (DNA)… (0.5) Direct hit of Ionizing energy upon genetic material of microbial cells, causing random, extensive damage (1) By Indirect effects (°FR)… (0.5) Ionizing energy interacts with water in the food. The absorbed energy will dislodge electrons from water molecules creating ion pairs & free radicals (1) 5. Define margin of safety in thermal processing. Explain your answer by providing numeric example. How is it applied to acid versus low-acid goods? (3marks) Margin of Safety- used to minimize possibility of viable survivors of C. botulinum (1) For low-acid foods a 12-D (0.5) must be applied, meaning that 12D = 12 log cycle redu
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