GEOB103 Lecture Notes (COMPLETE).docx

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University of British Columbia
Geographical Biogeosciences
GEOB 103
Michele Koppes

GEOB103 NOTES Esquivel 1 Week Chapter 2 11 12 3 13 4 15 5 15 6 15 7 14 8 14 9 17 10 17 11 13 12 13IntroductionGEOLOGY science and study of the Earth o Minerals and rocks around the region o Volcanic landforms and processes o Hydrologic processes o Hillslope and mass wasting processes o Fluvial processes and landforms o Glacier processes and landformsHYDROLOGY study of movement and distribution of water throughout the EarthGEOMORPHOLOGY study of landformsWEEK 1 Fundamentals of Geology Composition of the Earth3 major components o CORE centre of EarthRadius 3500 kmTemp 3000 degrees CelsiusInner coresolid iron and some nickelOuter coreliquid nickel ironWe know this because of seismographs and earthquakes o MANTLE solid shell of ultramafic minerals surrounding the coreThickness 2900 kmTemp 28001500 CelsiusULTRAMAFIC lots of magnesium and iron Mg Fe o CRUST thin outer layer composed of mafic and felsicThickness 850 kmTemp 01000 degrees CelsiusMaficMg FeFelsicCa Al Sirocks mostly igneous made from fireMarks change in densityCONTINENTAL CRUST 35 km thick 2 layersupper felsic and lower maficOCEANIC CRUST 7 km thick composed of mafic rocksdark rocks blackMOHOROVICIC DISCONTINUITY The Moho boundary between crust and mantlesharpAll relief on the Earths surface contained in top 10 km 02 of total thicknessMost of Earth made of 8 elements o Oxygen 47 o Silicon2875Oxygen and Silicon o Aluminum81 o Iron50 o Calcium36 o Sodium28 o Potassium26 GEOB103 NOTES Esquivel 2 o Magnesium21 o Others08Rock CycleROCK solid cohesive aggregate of grains composed of one or more minerals o Essentially all inorganicSEDIMENT generally unconsolidated inorganic materials originally derived from the weathering and erosion fractionation of rocks o Deposited after transport by water ice air gravityORGANIC MATTER deposits composed of mainly deaddecaying matter from organisms o ExamplesSoil forest litterPeat soil developed in wetlandsShell bedsOrganic mudsCoal tar sands in Alberta also classified as rocksOil shales3 MAIN ROCK TYPES 1 IGNEOUS rocks formed by crystallization cooling of molten material magma o INTRUSIVE plutonicMagma cools slowly below surfacelarge crystals grow o EXTRUSIVE volcanicMagma cools rapidly at surfacesmall crystals form o Also classified as felsic light color o Examplesgranite pink light white yellow colorhas calciumbasalt columns young extrusive rocks o alteration of igneous rockschemical weatheringformation of clay minerals secondary mineralssedimentseg oxidation hydrolysis o physical weathering breaks off individual mineral grainsfragmentation erosionsediments 2 SEDIMENTARY deposition compaction and cementation lithification of eroded rockmineral particleso Final result of lithification o FormedWeathering of rockssmall mineral particlesParticles transported by airwatergravitysedimentSediment deposited in various environmentsstrata Sedimentary strata become buriedPhysical and chemical changes hardenlithifaction3 METAMORPHIC o Constantly transforming from one type to another o Very slow process powered by heat of Earths interior1 What drives the rock cycle Heat and pressure The sundisintegration of rock2 What is the difference between sediment and sedimentary rock Sediment hasnt gone under lithification consolidation of sediment to become rockVancouver Coastal Mountainsgranitic rock intrusive igneous rockQueen E parksandstone sedimentary rockMETAMORPHIC rock that has undergone physical or chemical change can be existing igneous rock or sedimentary rock usually altered by intense heat andor pressure plate tectonicsClassify metamorphic rocks by degree of metamorphism grade GEOB103 NOTES Esquivel 3Amphibilite 3 Where does the heat come from Radioactive decay in the Earths coreMain product decay of Uranium U and Thorium Th o Other elementsLeadRadiation about 90 40 Potassium K o Calcium40 or Argon40Radiation about 104 Where does pressure come fromAir pressure1 atmosphere Atm or 1 barPressure beneath 10 m of water o1 Atm1 bar35 m of overlying rockPressure in deepest part of ocean o1000 bars3 km of rockPressure under 1 km of rockHow to determine what kind of rock shown in class Igneous rockspeckled no specific orientation has mafic and felsic rockMetamorphic rockdistinct white and dark bands crystals that are like each other aggregate towards each other when they undergo metamorphism heat and pressureSedimentary rockmade up of fossils that have been crystallized sitting in limestone WEEK 2 Tectonic Processes TECTONIC CYCLE movement of lithospheric plates on top of the asthenosphereLithosphere2 major layers in outer part of Earth lithosphere and asthenosphere not the same as crustmantle boundaryLITHOSPHERE geological term describe outer rigid rocky shell of crust and uppermost mantle 60150 km thick o Includes felsic mafic and ultramafic rockIncrease in density down the crust through moho and into mantleLITHOSPHERIC PLATESo Fit like jigsaw puzzles armadillo armour o Produces large earthquakes volcanism mountain rangesCreates subduction zonesAsthenosphereHeating of rocks below lithosphere results in plastic or soft rocksRocks are denser ultramaficScale note Together lithosphere and asthenosphere form a thin 300 km skin over earth 5 of its total thicknessPlate TectonicsPLATE TECTONICS the movement collision bending and breaking of lithospheric plates due to internal earth forcesLithospheric platesFloating on denser plastic asthenosphereLithosphere broken into large or plates aka tectonic plates o OCEANIC PLATES relatively thin denser oceanic lithosphere 60 km o CONTINENTAL PLATES made of thick light continental lithosphere 150 km
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