Geob 200 Midterm Notes.docx

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Department
Geographical Biogeosciences
Course
GEOB 200
Professor
Jim Glassman
Semester
Fall

Description
Geog200MidtermNotesVerticalstructureofAtmosphereTroposhereadjacenttosurfaceverticaldecreaseintemperature06100mgenerallywellmixedconvectionandfrictioncontainsalmostalloftheatmosphericwatervapourallweatherphenomenatakeplacewithinthislayeraveragebarometricpressureatsealevel1013hPaTropopausetopendoftropospherestartoftemperatureinversionStratospherebottomhalfisothermaltophalftempInversionStratopausetopendofstratosphereendoftempIncreaseMesospheretempDecreasewithheightMesopausetopendofmesospherelowesttempintheatmosphereThermospherecontinuoustempIncreaseduetoabsorptionofUVradiationconsistsprimarilyofmolecularandatomicoxygenandnitrogenAtmosphericPressureIdealgaslawdescribesrelationshipbetweenpressuredensityandtemperatureBecausethepressureoftheoverburdenatmospheredecreaseswithheightthedensityofairalsodecreaseswithheightndNewtons2LawIdealGasLawHypsometricEquationEnergyistheabilitytodoworkandworkisdonewhenaunitforceactsoverunitdistanceHeatameasureofthethermalenergycontentofabodyanditsabilitytotransferthermalenergytoanotherbodyThisisafunctionoftemperatureKdensitykgm3andspecificheatJkg1K1GenerallyexpressedinJoulesperunitmassJkg1orunitvolumeJm3TemperatureAirtemperatureisanexpressionofitsrandomkineticenergywhichisrelatedtothespeedatwhichitsmoleculesmoveTypesofEnergyRadiantenergyelectromagneticwavesSunhotfirecloudsanyobjectSensibleheatthermalenergywecanfeelwarmairmcpTLatentheatduetophasechangesofasubstanceespeciallywatercoolingwefeelaftergettingoutoftheswimmingpoolmLChemicalenergyfixedinconversionofCO2tocarbohydrateCH2OphotosynthesisKineticenergyduetomotionwindsmV2GeopotentialenergyduetopositioningravitationalfieldmgzEnergyBalanceNetRadiationSensibleHeatLatentHeatSoilHeatPhotosynthesisCharacteristicsofRadiationItistheemissionofenergyaselectromagneticwavesorasmovingparticlesEmmitedfromallmatterandtravelsonlyinastraightlineandatthespeedoflightDualPropertiesofRadiationWavelikepropertieswavelengthdistancebetweencrestsinmParticlelikepropertiesEnergyemittedindiscretepacketsphotonsorquantaEnergyofaphotonehnwherehPlancksconstant663x1034JsPlancksLawDescribestheemissionofradiantenergyfromafullradiatororblackbodyasafunctionofwavelengthataparticulartemperatureieElflTPlanckslawgivestheamountofblackbodymonochromaticsinglewavelengthradiativefluxcalledirradianceElWiensLawStatesthatthewavelengthofmaximumemissionfromablackbodyisinverselyproportionaltoitsabsoluteTofitssurfacewhereTisinkelvinsKAsTincreaseslmaxdecreasesegheatedmetalbargoesfromdullredbrightredorangeyellowwhitehotRelationcanbeusedtodeterminetheTofstarwithouthavingtomeasuretheactualfluxdensityofemittedradiationemittanceStefanBoltzmannLawstatesthatthetotalenergyradiatedperunitsurfaceareaofablackbodyperunittimealsoknownastheblackbodyirradianceoremissivepowerjisdirectlyproportionaltothefourthpoweroftheblackbodysthermodynamictemperatureTEgesT4whereeistheirsurfaceemissivityEmissivityistheratiooftheactualemissiontothatofablackbodyiee10Rangeofeisfrom0to1Naturalmaterialssoilsleaveswoodskinfurwatersnowcloudshaveevalues09KirchhoffsLawAssumingnotransmissiontheabsorptivityofabodyalequalsitsemissivityeliealelAgoodabsorberisagoodemitteralsotruethatifasurfaceisapoorabsorberitalsodoesntemitthatkindofradiationSurfacepropertiescontrollingincidentradiation1Absorptivityalfractionofincidentradiationabsorbed2Reflectivityalfractionreflectedfromthesurface3TransmissivitytlfractiontransmittedthroughthesurfaceThesubscriptlindicatesthatthesepropertieschangewithwavelengthasweshallsee
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