GEOG 122 Study Guide - London, Paris, New York, Global City, Financial Centre
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1) Allen Scott (2005) „Cinema, culture, globalization‟ pp. 159-175 in Hollywood: The Place,
The Industry. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CHAPTER 6 in course reader. Lauren
Ellis & Zoe Lawer
Topic: this article discusses the flow of culture, specifically through Hollywood
Main Idea/abstraction: the flow of culture in a globalizing world
Low level details:
- do we have a hegemonic culture with film? Is Hollywood a hegemonic culture? Yes, but
there is competition
- because of the penetration of American cultural norms into other social environments
• theoretically, we should be watching movies in other languages if different language-speaking
countries watch English movies (subtitles eliminate the language barrier), however this is
not the case
• some cultures/nations are countering hegemonic Hollywood with tariffs, restrictions of TV
broadcasting, and subsidies supporting local film production. This raises the issue of
ethics and free market
• national interest over free choice - free choice is not really free choice! "Consumption does not
equal private choice" - tariffs and restrictions dictate what we "choose" to watch
• large metropolitan regions: new areas where the cultural economy of global capitalism
• a place for cultural production
• able to incorporate local characteristics that can be decoded and understood by non-local
Topic (what is the passage about?)
In this passage, Allen Scott examines the global production of motion pictures.
Specifically he looks at how Hollywood dominates the global market in monetarily. It is this
domination by Hollywood that has influences the cultural imperialism theory, which states, “The
laws of globalization are called homogenization, standardization of tastes, behaviors and
cultures”. This influence has resulted in countries striving to protect their own traditions and
authentic identity. However, there has also been a hybridity and cross-fertilization of ideas
between metropolitan regions such as, Tokyo, London, Berlin, etc. which has sustained a
dynamism of cultural production. It is further explored the cultural dichotomy (between high and
low culture) is rising. However, despite Hollywood‟s appeal to the masses, the quality of the
movies is not inferior to those aimed at a high culture. Finally, he concludes with recognizing the
extent the internet will play on influencing the global production of motion pictures, the degree
of decentralization of functions from primary agglomerations and how Hollywood is likely to face
increasing competition for dominance in the international markets.
Detail (supporting detail and relevant and important facts)
Allen Scott doesn‟t use too many specific details but does include a few tables and a
map to demonstrate the distribution of production, money made from films and the number of
films produced by countries. Overall, the United States far exceeds any country in regards to the
monetary gains, however in regards to number of films produced India, China and other Asian
countries exceed US production.
2) J. Bale (2003) „The growth and globalisation of sports‟ pp. 36-58 in Sports Geography.
New York: Routledge. CHAPTER 7 in course reader. Allison Brown & Emilee Northwood
- Bale says that he is trying to focus on the transition of folk games into global forms of sports
- Claims sports has emerged as a global system
- Structural properties of folk games and modern sports Examples: Folk: Simple and unwritten customary rules,
legitimated by tradition. Modern: Formal and elaborate written rules legitimated by tradition worked out
pragmatically and legitimated by rational-bureaucratic means. (There is an entire table of these comparisons on page
- Taylor noted that while some simple games such as wrestling or throwing a ball had grown independently in a
number of separate geographical locations, others seemed so distinct and artificial that it was unlikely that their
distinctiveness could be hit upon more than once. This is an example of diffusionism, a term in which in recent years
has assumed somewhat negative connotations.
- Sports are both traditional (such as riding, skating, archery etc) but can also grow out of war like activities such as
- Transition from folk game to sport was 5 stages: 1) the folk game stage 2) the formation of clubs 3) the
establishment of a rule making national bureaucracy 4) the diffusion and adoption of the sport in other countries and
5) the formation of an international bureaucracy sports drastically changed with the processes of imperialism and
colonization through this kind of manor, however, it could be rejected. In Africa, some groups rejected modern body
cultures and continued to practice their own corporeal activities.
- Sports were developed before working hours were reduced however sports and industrialization seemed to share
- The transition from folk game to national sports mostly happened when Europeans adopted and adapted a game
that was played by a native minority.
- National regions were convinced to participate when private entrepreneurs convinced regional or national
champions to play for high financial rewards.
- Technosports exist, which are sports that don‘t go through the folk game stage and were invented from stratch.
Examples: Basketball, Volleyball.
- Before bureaucracies, the sports world couldn‘t really compete nationally as there was different interpretations of
rules and of amateur status. The need for bureaucracies to come in and regulate the rules and regulate sports was
how it began to be able to spread nationally.
- National organizations existed, and it was the need to improve regulations of these events that turned it into
needing more of a bureaucratic form like the economic system, sports had become a global system.
Standardization of rules permitted movement internationally, and could allow for better competition.
- Sports were introduced as a way of forcing colonies to accept their colonization. Example: Africans were taught
how to play soccer during the inter war years to win over the natives by defusing their native passions and
challenging their superfluous energies upon proper lines Sports acted as a way of social control.
- Sports is a paradigm of global culture.
*Focus of article is on the transformation of sport from folk-games to its modern global form
-With the decline of folk-game has come the expansion of globalized and modern forms of sport
(use of national and international organizations -> to control and administer them)
-Expansion of sport associated with industrialization and colonialism
-Informal organization, unwritten rules, regional variation of rules (ex. Ball size), low
division of labor among players, emphasis on force as opposed to skill
- Highly specific and formal organization, elaborate and written rules, played in spatially
limited areas, fixed time limits, norms of equality and “fairness”, high differentiation
among labor distribution, social control by officials, emphasis on skill
Good Example to use in essay:
-Europeans adopted and adapted a first-nations game that had been played by a native
-Lacrosse -> until 1930 was solely a first nations folk-game
-First white lacrosse club established in Montreal in 1839/1840
-Rules were formulated in 1867 -> same year National Lacrosse Association of Canada was
- Mohawk Club of New York was formed in 1879
- Game became internationalized with the establishment of the International Lacrosse
Association in 1928
- An indigenous folk-lore game had become internationalized in less than 90 years
*Stresses the significance of international sport bureaucracies -> have become a global system -
> standardization of rules allows for movement internationally -> transfer of sport across national
boarders results in meaningful international competition
-Sport as a modern phenomenon originated from Britain and tended to diffuse to advancing
-Sport innovations continue to grow -> the numbers of clubs; federations and sports are all
- Given the increasing treatment of sport as a commodity -> follows the integration of sport into
the global economic system
3) Gregg (2006) Identity crisis: Multiculturalism, a 20C dream becomes a 21C nightmare‟
The Walrus, March issue, UBCLIB Zoe Lawer
Topic: Gregg discusses different instances of unsuccessful attempts of multiculturalism within a
nation, and the likelihood that Canada will digress into the same patterns of violences between
Main Idea: that Canada may have simply avoided this violent fate so far because our
immigration is a generation behind other countries (Germany, France, Britain, Australia, etc) that
are experiencing racial violence and protest among immigrants.
Low Level Details:
- Britain, France, and Australia are all experiencing racial violence (such as London Bombings,
French Riots, or 5000 white Australians attacking Middle Easterners to return the Australian
immigration policy to being ―whites only‖)
- Canada is unique because of it‘s full embrace of multiculturalism into the structural system (in
the Charter of Rights and Freedoms)
• ―has built these practices into it‘s symbols and narratives of nationhood‖
• however, in a survey, Canadians expressed that they thought Canada excepted ―just enough‖ or
―too many‖ immigrants, and claimed that Europeans are of most help to Canada over other
nations and ethnicities
- Canada‘s ―mosaic of culture is fracturing, and ethnic groups are self-segregating‖ creating
―ethnic enclaves,‖ communities that consist of more than 30% of a single visible minority
• some are well-off, however majority of enclaves have below Canadian average incomes
Week 7: allen scott (2005) cinema, culture, globalization pp. Topic: this article discusses the flow of culture, specifically through hollywood. Main idea/abstraction: the flow of culture in a globalizing world. This raises the issue of ethics and free market: national interest over free choice - free choice is not really free choice! In this passage, allen scott examines the global production of motion pictures. Specifically he looks at how hollywood dominates the global market in monetarily. It is this domination by hollywood that has influences the cultural imperialism theory, which states, the laws of globalization are called homogenization, standardization of tastes, behaviors and cultures . This influence has resulted in countries striving to protect their own traditions and authentic identity. However, there has also been a hybridity and cross-fertilization of ideas between metropolitan regions such as, tokyo, london, berlin, etc. which has sustained a dynamism of cultural production.