Notes on Readings for Exam.docx

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GEOG 352
Charles Greenberg

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GEOGRAPHY 352Reading ListBeall Jo 2002 Globalization and Social exclusion in Cities Framing the Debate with Lessons from Africa and Asia Environment and Urbanization 14 1 4051ConclusionsIF WE ACCEPT that social exclusion is distinct from but often accompanies poverty outcomes and that social exclusion implies something different from other relational concepts such as racial oppression or gender subordination then we can argue that a social exclusion perspective while difficult to operationalize provides us with a useful heuristic tool for understanding both persistent and mutating patterns of social disadvantage It provides a way of understanding the relational and institutional dynamics that serve to include some and keep others out in a connected but polarized global economic context As such it is an analytical construct compatible with the study of global economic processes and the poverty and inequality to which they increasingly give rise Is it then the case as Clert suggests53 that the takeup of the concept of social exclusion signals a positive epistemological shift from the focus on poverty reduction that characterizes neoliberal approaches to development The answer has to be yes to the extent that the concept of social exclusion implies a focus on the causes of poverty and inequality as well as on the outcomes and encourages the exploration of macromicro linkages However in practice application of the social exclusion perspective in the context of development cooperation has largely given rise to a reformist rather than a transformationalist policy agenda This is not least because social inclusion is offered as an alternative to social exclusion The question remainsinclusion in what on whose terms and in whose interestsIntegration into the international economy undoubtedly shapes the pattern of urban development in all cities Some urban local governments such as that of Johannesburg recognize that they stand as nodes of greater or lesser importance in an interconnected global network and are proac tive about their location in the global urban hierarchy Others such as Faisalabad appear less proactive in trying to position themselves in rela tion to the changing dynamics of interurban competition In both cases the persistence or legacy of exclusionary axes at the national and local levels articulate with those emanating at the global level Moreover the casestudy examples reviewed above show that new exclusionary processes associated with global trends and pressures graft themselves onto existing dynamics of social exclusion that play themselves out locally These in turn can impact on global economic trends because macro economic policy can never be understood independent of its micro impacts and rootsThe implications of the above analysis for understanding the nature and focus of urban governance institutions is the recognition that the latter will be responsive to social and economic change at local national and international levels The implications of a social exclusion perspective for social policy would equally involve taking account of the citys location in the global regional and national economy and the macropolicy context in
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